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Essays on Founding Documents/Readings

Happy Independence Day! Read The Declaration of Independence with your family and friends!

Why Was The Electoral College Created? – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross

1789: George Washington And The First Presidential Election Under The New Constitution – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

1792, George Washington Sets The Tone For America As Its First Elected President – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

Millennials’ Time To Choose – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

Does The Electoral College Still Work? – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross

1800, Thomas Jefferson Defeats John Adams: The First Peaceful Transfer Of The Presidency From One Political Party To Another – Guest Essayist: Kevin Gutzman

1796, John Adams Defeats Thomas Jefferson: Surviving America’s First Election Between Competing Political Parties – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

Election Of 1800: Constitutional Implications Of The Alien & Sedition Acts – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1804, The Constitutional Significance Of The Louisiana Purchase: An Election Issue – Guest Essayist: Professor Robert McDonald

1800, Electoral College Tie Between Jefferson And Burr, Throwing An Election Into The House Of Representatives For The First Time – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1804, Thomas Jefferson Defeats Charles Pinckney: The Significance Of The 12th Amendment – Guest Essayist: James Legee

1808, James Madison Defeats Charles Pinckney: The Embargo Act Of 1807 – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

James Madison Defeats DeWitt Clinton: The Wartime Election Of 1812 – Guest Essayist: Sam Agami

1816, James Monroe Defeats Rufus King: The Hartford Convention – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1816, Constitutional Issues Surrounding The Second Bank Of The U. S. – Guest Essayist: Professor Kyle Scott

1820, James Monroe Won Unopposed: The Missouri Compromise – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1824, John Quincy Adams Defeats Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, And William Crawford: Party Nominating Conventions And Popular Votes In Elections – Guest Essayist: Professor Joseph Postell

McCulloch v. Maryland: Not Quite A Campaign Issue? – Guest Essayist: Professor Robert Lowry Clinton

1824, The Second Instance Of An Election Decided In The House Of Representatives – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1828, Andrew Jackson Defeats John Quincy Adams: The Two-Party System – Guest Essayist: Professor Mark Cheathem

1828, Controversy Over Andrew Jackson’s War Record And The Question Of Civilian Control Over The Military – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey

1832, Andrew Jackson Defeats Henry Clay, William Wirt: Re-Chartering Of The Bank Of The U.S. – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1832, The Anti-Masonic Controversy – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1836, Martin Van Buren Defeats William Henry Harrison, Daniel Webster, Hugh White: The Unusual Practice Of Running Three Candidates By One Party (The Whigs) In Different Parts Of The Country – Guest Essayist: Lisa Ice-Jones

1836, The Tariff Issue And The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1840, William Henry Harrison Defeats Martin Van Buren: The Appeal Of Running Military Heroes For President And The Issue Of Generalship As A Qualification For Executive Office – Guest Essayist: Lisa Ice-Jones

1841, The Presidency Of John Tyler – Guest Essayist: John S. Baker

1844, James K. Polk Defeats Henry Clay, James Birney – Texas Annexation As It Related To The Issue Of Slavery: Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1844, The Issue Of Oregon Territorial Boundary – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1848, Zachary Taylor Defeats Martin Van Buren, Lewis Cass: Popular Sovereignty In The Territories, Cass’s Issue That Would Affect U. S. Constitutional Politics For The Next Decade – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

Election Of 1848: Abolitionism And The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1856, James Buchanan Defeats Millard Fillmore, John C. Fremont: The Kansas-Nebraska Act – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

1852, Franklin Pierce Defeats Winfield Scott, John Pitale: The Controversy Over The Fugitive Slave Act Of 1850 – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1856, The Rise Of The Republican Party – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1860, Abraham Lincoln’s Cooper Union Address And Mathew Brady’s Lincoln Photo: The Making Of The President – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

1860, Abraham Lincoln Defeats Stephen Douglas, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell: Constitutional Issues Surrounding Secessionism And “The Crisis Of The House Divided” – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

1860, Stephen Douglas’ Understanding Of The Constitution – Guest Essayist: David J. Shestokas

1860, John C. Breckinridge’s Understanding Of The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1860, John Bell’s Understanding Of The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1860, Abraham Lincoln’s Understanding Of The Constitution, Part 1: Its Relation To The Declaration Of Independence – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise

1860, Abraham Lincoln’s Understanding of the Constitution, Part 2: The Importance Of The Union – Guest Essayist: David J. Shestokas

1864, Abraham Lincoln Defeats George McClellan: Constitutional Issues Raised By Lincoln’s Conduct Of The War – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1864, Holding A Presidential Election During A Civil War – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

Civil War Amendments – Guest Essayist: James Legee

1868, Ulysses S. Grant Defeats Horatio Seymour: Reconstruction And The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1868, Constitutional Issues Surrounding Black Suffrage – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1872, Ulysses S. Grant Defeats Horace Greeley: The Continuing Controversies Over Reconstruction – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1872, Civil Service Reform – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1876, Rutherford B. Hayes Defeats Samuel Tilden: The End of Reconstruction – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1876, Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel Tilden: Controversy Over Election Returns In This Election – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors

1880, James Garfield Defeats Winfield Scott Hancock: The Tariff Controversy, Post-Civil War – Guest Essayist: Kirk Higgins

1884, Grover Cleveland Defeats James G. Blaine: The Issues Surrounding The Furor Stirred By The “Rum, Romanism, And Rebellion” Slogan, Regarding Religious Freedom And Anti-Catholic Prejudice – Guest Essayist: Peter Roff

1888, Benjamin Harrison Defeats Grover Cleveland: The Constitutional Issues Raised By Cleveland’s Veto Of Pension Legislation For Veterans – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan

Grover Cleveland: Twenty-Second And Twenty-Fourth President Of The United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

William McKinley: Twenty-Fifth President Of The United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1896, William McKinley Defeats William Jennings Bryan: The Gold Standard vs. Bimetallism – Guest Essayist: Karl Rove

1904, Theodore Roosevelt Defeats Alton Parker: Anti-Trust Legislation – Guest Essayist: Steven Aden

1904 And 1908 Elections: Theodore Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” vs. William Jennings Bryan’s Populism – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1908, William Howard Taft Defeats William Jennings Bryan – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

Progressivism And The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Matthew Spalding

1912, Woodrow Wilson Defeats William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Eugene Debs: Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom” – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1912, Theodore Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey

1912, Eugene Debs’ Socialism And The U. S. Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1916, Woodrow Wilson Defeats Charles Evans Hughes – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

Warren G. Harding: Twenty-Ninth President Of The United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1920, The Sedition Act And Eugene Debs: Raising Of The Issue Of The “Red Scare” – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1924, Calvin Coolidge Defeats Robert M. LaFollette, Burton K. Wheeler (Progressive Party), And John W. Davis: The Direct Election Of Presidents – Guest Essayist: Professor Joe Postell

Women’s Suffrage And The Impact On Presidential Elections – Guest Essayist: Rachel Sheffield

Herbert Hoover: Thirty-First President Of The United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1928, The Effects Of Urbanization On The U. S. And Its Implications For Constitutional Government – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner

1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt Defeats Herbert Hoover: How The Great Depression Threatened Constitutionalism – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1932, The “New Deal” – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1936, Franklin D. Roosevelt Defeats Alfred Landon: Administrative Centralization And Its Implications For Constitutionalism – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

1936, Supreme Court Opposition To New Deal Laws – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper

1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt Defeats Thomas Dewey: Constitutional Implications Of Roosevelt’s Liberal Internationalism, United Nations – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1948, Harry Truman Defeats Thomas Dewey, Strom Thurmond (“Dixiecrat”), Henry Wallace (Progressive Party): “States’ Rights” And Civil Rights Issues Raised By Dixiecrats – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey

1948, Harry Truman: The Atomic Bomb, Cold War, Marshall Plan & The Fair Deal and Civil Rights Reform – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower Defeats Adlai Stevenson: Communism And Civil Liberties – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper

A Memorial Day Message by Constituting America Founder & Co-Chair Janine Turner

1956, Dwight D. Eisenhower Defeats Aldai Stevenson – Guest Essayist: James Legee

1960, The Election Of The First Catholic President As A Vindication Of The First Amendment’s Clauses On Religious Freedom And Religion Establishment – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1964, Lyndon B. Johnson Defeats Barry Goldwater – The “Great Society” And The Constitution: Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan

1968, Richard Nixon Defeats Hubert Humphrey, George C. Wallace: The Rise Of The “New Left” – Guest Essayist: Professor Steve Knott

1972, Richard Nixon Defeats George McGovern: Watergate – Guest Essayist: Professor David Kopel

1968, Supreme Court Decisions On Civil Rights: An Issue Raised By George C. Wallace – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter

1972, Richard Nixon: Thirty-Seventh President of the United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

A Different Take On Watergate – Guest Essayist: John Marini

Our Constitution Works: President Ford’s Date With Destiny: Guest Essayist – Gerald R. Ford Presidential Foundation

1976, Jimmy Carter: Thirty-Ninth President Of The United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1980, Ronald Reagan Defeats Jimmy Carter, John Anderson: The Critique Of The Administrative State – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer

1984, Ronald Reagan Defeats Walter Mondale: Geraldine Ferraro Nomination As Vice President And The Constitutional Implications Of The Feminist Movement – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1988, George H.W. Bush Defeats Michael Dukakis – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams

1992, Bill Clinton Defeats George H.W. Bush – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

1996, Bill Clinton, Presidential Elections, And Constitutional Rule Of Law – Guest Essayist: Brian Chilton

2000, George W. Bush Defeats Al Gore, Ralph Nader: A Case Study On Choosing Electors – Guest Essayist: The Honorable John N. Hostettler

2004, George W. Bush Defeats John Kerry: Due Process, Terrorism, And The Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer

2008, Barack Obama: Forty-Fourth President of the United States – Guest Essayist: Juliette Turner

2012, Barack Obama Defeats Mitt Romney – Guest Essayist: Michael Barone

Constitutional Issues In The 2016 Election – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey