Original Documents

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.  

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject […]

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be […]

Amendment VII

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Amendment XI

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795. Note: Article […]

Amendment XII

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and […]

Amendment XIII

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December […]

Amendment XIV

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State […]

Amendment XV

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude– Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Passed by Congress February […]

Amendment XVI

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913. Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.  

Amendment XVII

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in […]

Amendment XVIII

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall […]

Amendment XIX

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.

Amendment XX

Section 1. The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the […]

Amendment XXI

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Section 3. This article shall […]

Amendment XXII

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more […]

Amendment XXIII

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but […]

Amendment XXIV

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to […]

Amendment XXV

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote […]

Amendment XXVI

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Passed by Congress […]

Amendment XXVII

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.  

Essays on Founding Documents/Readings

August 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 84 – Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered, From McLean’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Dr. Matthew Spalding, Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies at The Heritage Foundation

August 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 83 – The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury, From McLEAN’S Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kelly Shackelford, President/CEO of the Liberty Institute

August 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 82 –The Judiciary Continued, From McLEAN’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Robert Lowry Clinton, Professor and Chair of the Department of Political Science at Southern Illinois University Carbondale

August 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 81 – The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority, From McLean’s Edition, New York – Guest Blogger: Jeffrey Reed is a professional orchestra conductor, holds a degree from the Louis B. Brandeis School of Law, and has taught constitutional law at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky

August 16, 2010 – Federalist Paper No. 78 & 79 – Janine Turner

August 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 78 & Federalist No. 79 – Janine Turner

August 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 72 – The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kelly Shackelford, President/CEO of the Liberty Institute

August 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 71 – The Duration in Office of the Executive, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kyle Scott, PhD, Professor in the Political Science Department and Honors College at the University of Houston

August 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 71 and Federalist No. 72 – Cathy Gillespie

July 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 68 – The Mode of Electing the President, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

July 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 67 – The Executive Department, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Troy Kickler, Founding Director of the North Carolina History Project.

July 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 66 – Janine Turner

July 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 65 – The Powers of the Senate Continued, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Troy Kickler, Ph.D., Founding Director of the North Carolina History Project

July 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 64 – Cathy Gillespie

July 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 63 – Janine Turner

July 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 62 – Cathy Gillespie

July 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 60 – Janine Turner

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Cathy Gillespie

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Janine Turner

July 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 58 – Objection that the Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Founding Fathers

July 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 55 – Janine Turner

July 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 51 – The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, From the New York Packet (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Professor John S. Baker, Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

June 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 51 – Cathy Gillespie

July 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 50 – The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives (Madison or Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Founding Fathers

July 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 49 & Federalist No. 50 – Cathy Gillespie

July 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 48 – Cathy Gillespie

July 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 47 – Cathy Gillespie

June 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 46 – The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: David B. Kopel, Research Director at the Independence Institute, and Adjunct Professor of Advanced Constitutional Law at Denver University, Sturm College of Law

June 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 45 – Cathy Gillespie

June 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 44 – Cathy Gillespie

June 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 39 – The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: John S. Baker, Jr., the Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

June 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 32 – Cathy Gillespie

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – Janine Turner

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – Cathy Gillespie

June 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 27 – Cathy Gillespie

May 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 18 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton & Madison) – Guest Blogger: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

May 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 17 – Janine Turner

May 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 12 – Cathy Gillespie

April 26, 2010 – Articles IV-VII – Janine Turner

April 21, 2010 Article I of the U.S. Constitution – Janine Turner

April 21, 2010 – Article I of the U.S. Constitution – Guest Blogger: David Bobb, Director and Lecturer in Political Science | Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship | Hillsdale College

April 27, 2010 – The Amendments to the United States Constitution – Cathy Gillespie

April 27, 2010 – The Amendments to the United States Constitution – Janine Turner

April 27, 2010 – The Amendments to the United States Constitution – Michael Krauss, Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law

February 24, 2011 – Article I, Section 02, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: W. B. Allen, Havre de Grace, MD

February 25, 2011 – Article I, Section 02, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 2, 2011 – Article I, Section 03, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

March 7, 2011 – Article I, Section 04, Clause 1-2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 10, 2011 – Article I, Section 05, Clause 3-4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner, Executive Director, The Dreyfuss Initiative on Civics

March 11, 2011 – Article I, Section 06, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 17, 2011 – Article I, Section 07, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Kyle Scott, Political Science Department and Honors College Professor at the University of Houston

March 24, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 05-06 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Troy Kickler, Founding Director of North Carolina History Project and Editor of northcarolinahistory.org

April 5, 2011 – Article I, Section 09, Clause 2-3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 6, 2011 – Article I, Section 09, Clause 4-6 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Allison Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

April 15, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross, Author, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College

April 18, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 19, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Gary S. McCaleb, Senior Counsel, Alliance Defense Fund

April 21, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joe Postell, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

May 11, 2011 – Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 16, 2011 – Article V of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 19, 2011 – Amendment I of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayists: Mr. Kelly Shackelford, President and CEO for Liberty Institute, and Justin Butterfield, Constitutional Attorney, Liberty Institute

May 20, 2011 – Amendment II of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: David B. Kopel, Research Director at the Independence Institute, and Adjunct Professor of Advanced Constitutional Law at Denver University, Sturm College of Law

May 23, 2011 – Amendment III of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Robert Chapman-Smith, Instructional Design Associate at the Bill of Rights Institute

May 24, 2011 – Amendment IV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Jeffrey Reed, a professional orchestra conductor, holds a degree from the Louis B. Brandeis School of Law, and has taught constitutional law at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky

May 25, 2011 – Amendment V of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

May 26, 2011 – Amendment VI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Marc. S. Lampkin, a Vice President at Quinn Gillespie

May 27, 2011 – Amendment VII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: W. David Stedman and LaVaughn G. Lewis, Co-Editors, Our Ageless Constitution

May 30, 2011 – Amendment VIII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 31, 2011 – Amendment IX of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Steven H. Aden, Senior Counsel, Alliance Defense Fund

June 1, 2011 – Amendment X of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

June 2, 2011 – Amendment XI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Kevin Theriot, Senior Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

June 3, 2011 – Amendment XII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 6, 2011 – Amendment XIII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, a Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

June 7, 2011 – Amendment XIV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Kevin Theriot, Senior Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

June 8, 2011 – Amendment XV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Colin Hanna, President, Let Freedom Ring

June 9, 2011 – Amendment XVI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

June 10, 2011 – Amendment XVII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

June 13, 2011 – Amendment XVIII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 14, 2011 – Amendment XIX of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Carol Crossed, Owner and President, Susan B Anthony Birthplace Museum

June 15, 2011 – Amendment XX of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

June 16, 2011 – Amendment XXI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

June 17, 2011 – Amendment XXII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Marc. S. Lampkin, a Vice President at Quinn Gillespie

June 20, 2011 – Amendment XXIII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

June 21, 2011 – Amendment XXIV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 22, 2011 – Amendment XXV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

June 23, 2011 – Amendment XXVI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

June 24, 2011 – Amendment XXVII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute

February 20, 2012 – Essay #1 – The Amendment Process – Guest Essayist: Dr. Larry P. Arnn, president of Hillsdale College, and author of The Founders’ Key: The Divine and Natural Connection Between the Declaration and the Constitution and What We Risk by Losing It

February 21, 2012 – Essay #2 – The Bill of Rights, Purpose and Benefits – Guest Essayist: Richard Brookhiser, Author, James Madison

The Bill Of Rights & 25 Things The Government Cannot Make You Do – How Many Can You Name?

February 23, 2012 – Essay #4 – Amendment I: The Establishment Clause – Guest Essayist:David J. Bobb, Ph.D., director of the Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington, D.C.

February 24, 2012 – Essay #5 – Amendment I: The Free Exercise Clause – Guest Essayist: Eric Rassbach, Deputy General Counsel at The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty

Watch or Listen to Janine Turner Read: Amendment I: The Establishment Clause – Guest Essayist: David J. Bobb, Ph.D., director of the Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington, D.C.

Watch or Listen to Janine Turner Read: Amendment I: The Free Exercise Clause – Guest Essayist: Eric Rassbach, Deputy General Counsel at The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty

February 27, 2012 – Essay #6 – Amendment I: Congress Shall make no law….abridging the freedom of speech – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

March 1, 2012 – Essay #9 – Amendment I: Right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

February 29, 2012 – Essay #8 – Amendment I: Congress Shall Make No Laws….Abridging the Right of the People to Peacefully Assemble – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

February 28, 2012 – Essay #7 – Amendment I: Freedom of the Press – Guest Essayist: James C. Duff, CEO of the Newseum and the Diversity Institute, and President and CEO of the Freedom Forum

Listen to Janine Turner Interview Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty on the Janine Turner Radio Show – on Amendment I: Congress Shall make no law….abridging the freedom of speech

Friday, March 2, 2012 – Essay #10 – Amendment I: Guest Essayist: Justin Dyer, Ph.D., Author and Professor of Political Science, University of Missouri

March 5, 2012 – Essay #11 – Amendment II: Well Regulated Militia Being Necessary to the Security of a Free State – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 6, 2012 – Essay #12 – Amendment II: The Right of the People to Keep & Bear Arms, Shall Not Be Infringed – Guest Essayist: Dr. John Lott, author of More Guns, Less Crime (University of Chicago Press, third edition, 2010).

March 14, 2012 – Essay #18 – Amendment V: The Right to a Grand Jury – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

March 9, 2012 – Essay #15 – Amendment IV: Protection Against Unreasonable Searches – Guest Essayist: Dr. Charles K. Rowley, General Director of The Locke Institute and Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University

March 8, 2012 – Essay #14 – Amendment III: Situation in Time of War – Guest Essayist: Andrew Dykstal, a Junior at Hillsdale College

March 7, 2012 – Essay #13 – Amendment III: Freedom From Quartering Soldiers in Peacetime – Guest Essayist: William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

March 12, 2012 – Essay #16 – Amendment IV: Warrants to Have Probable Cause – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Senior Fellow with the Heartland Institute

March 13, 2012 – Essay #17 – Amendment IV: Warrants Must Describe the Place and Persons With Particularity – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 15, 2012 – Essay #19 – Amendment V: Right Against Double Jeopardy – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 16, 2012 – Essay #20 – Amendment V: Right Against Self- Incrimination – Guest Essayist: Professor Kyle Scott, Professor of American Politics and Constitutional Law, Duke University

March 19, 2012 – Essay #21 – Amendment V: Right to Due Process to Prevent Deprivation of Life, Liberty, or Property – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP law firm

March 20, 2012 – Essay #22 – Amendment V: Right to Just Compensation in Eminent Domain Matters – Guest Essayist: Gordon S. Jones, Utah Valley University

March 21, 2012 – Essay #23 – Amendment V – Guest Essayist: Michelle Griffes, Manager of Programs and Curriculum Development at the Bill of Rights Institute

March 22, 2012 – Essay #24 – Amendment VI: Right to a Speedy Trial – Guest Essayist: Cynthia Dunbar, attorney, author, speaker and Assistant Professor of Law at Liberty University

March 23, 2012 – Essay #25 – Amendment VI: Right to a Public Trial – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 26, 2012 – Essay #26 – Amendment VI: Right to an Impartial Jury – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

March 27, 2012 – Essay #27 – Amendment VI: Right to be Informed of the Charge – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 28, 2012 – Essay #28 – Amendment VI: Right to Confront Accuser – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Senior Fellow with the Heartland Institute

March 29, 2012 – Essay #29 – Amendment VI: Right to Have Assistance of Counsel – Guest Essayist: Professor Kyle Scott, Professor of American Politics and Constitutional Law, Duke University

March 30, 2012 – Essay #30 – Amendment VI – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

April 2, 2012 – Essay #31 – Amendment VII: Right to Trial in Civil Disputes – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

April 3, 2012 – Essay # 32 – Amendment VII: Trier of Fact Versus Law – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP law firm

April 4, 2012 – Essay # 33 – Amendment VIII: Right to Reasonable Bail – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

April 5, 2012 – Essay #34 – Amendment VIII: Right Against Excessive Fines – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

April 6, 2012 – Essay # 35 – Amendment VIII: Right Against Cruel and Unusual Punishment – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

April 9, 2012 – Essay #36 – Amendment VIII: Guest Essayist: Matthew Mehan, Publius Fellow and U.S. History Teacher

April 10, 2012 – Essay #37 – Amendment IX: Rights Which Are Enumerated – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

April 11, 2012 – Essay #38 – Amendment IX: Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan Ph.D., author of The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

April 12, 2012 – Essay #39 – Amendment X: Our Constitution a Grant of Limited Powers to the National Government – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

April 13, 2012 – Essay #40 – Amendment X: Rights Reserved to the States and the People – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, an attorney and President of Frontiers of Freedom

April 16, 2012 – Essay #41 – Amendment X: Modern Issues of States’ Rights – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan Ph.D., author of The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

April 17, 2012 – Essay #42 – Amendment XI: Right of States to Sovereign Immunity – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 18, 2012 – Essay #43 – Amendment XII: Reforming the Electoral College – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross, Author, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College

April 19, 2012 – Essay #44 – Amendment XII: A Tie in the Electoral College – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross, Author, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College

April 20, 2012 – Essay #45 – Amendment XII: Circumstances Allowing the Senate to Choose the Vice-President – Guest Scholar: Hans Eicholz, Historian and Senior Fellow with Liberty Fund, Inc., an educational foundation based in Indianapolis, Indiana

Monday, April 23, 2012 – Essay #46 – Amendment XIII: Section 1 – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

April 24, 2012 – Essay #47 – Amendment XIII: Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Senior Fellow with the Heartland Institute

April 25, 2012 – Essay #48 – Amendment XIV, Section 1 – Citizenship Defined – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 26, 2012 – Essay #49 – Amendment XIV Privileges or Immunities – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, M.P.Aff., J.D., Ph.D., Associate professor of the Department of History and Non-Western Cultures at Western Connecticut State University

April 27, 2012 – Essay #50 – Amendment XIV Due Process Protection – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LoMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

Monday, April 30, 2012 – Essay #51 – Amendment XIV, Section 1: Equal Protection Under the Law – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, May 1, 2012 – Essay # 52 – Amendment XIV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

Wednesday, May 2, 2012 – Essay # 53 – Amendment XIV, Section 3 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

Thursday, May 3, 2012 – Essay # 54 – Amendment XIV, Section 4 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

Friday, May 4, 2012 – Essay # 55 – Amendment XIV, Section 5 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

May 7, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: Justin Dyer, Ph.D., Author and Professor of Political Science, University of Missouri

May 7, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: Robert P. George, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, Director of the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, Princeton University

May 8, 2012 – Essay #57 – Amendment XV – Guest Essayist: Colin Hanna, President, Let Freedom Ring

May 9, 2012 – Essay #58 – Amendment XV, Section Two – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 10, 2012 – Essay #59 – Amendment XVI – Guest Essayist: Marc Lampkin, Shareholder at Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck and graduate of the Boston College Law School

May 11, 2012 – Essay #60 – Amendment XVI – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

May 14, 2012 – Essay #61 – Amendment XVII: Direct Election of Senators – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

May 15, 2012 – Essay #62 – Amendment XVII: Reform or Revision? – Guest Essayist: Ralph A. Rossum, Ph.D., the Salvatori Professor of American Constitutionalism at Claremont McKenna College

May 16, 2012 – Essay #63 – Amendment XVIII, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Gordon Lloyd, Ph.D., Professor of Public Policy at Pepperdine University

May 17, 2012 – Essay #64 – Amendment XVIII, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 18, 2012 – Essay #65 – Amendment XIX – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

May 6, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, a partner in the law firm of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP

March 15, 2012 – Essay #19 – Amendment V: Right Against Double Jeopardy – Guest Essayist: Guest Essayist: Charles E. Rice, Professor Emeritus of Law at the University of Notre Dame

May 21, 2012 – Essay #66 – Amendment XX, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Frank M. Reilly, Esq., a partner at Potts & Reilly, L.L.P.

May 22, 2012 – Essay #67 – Amendment XX, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Marc Lampkin, Shareholder at Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck and graduate of the Boston College Law School

May 23, 2012 – Essay #68 – Amendment XX, Section 3 – Guest Essayist: David J. Bobb, Director, Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship in Washington, D.C., and lecturer in politics

May 24, 2012 – Essay #69 – Amendment XX, Section 4 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 25, 2012 – Essay #70 – Amendment XXI, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Lawrence J. Spiwak, President of the Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies

May 28, 2012 – Essay #71 – Amendment XXI, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Frank M. Reilly, Esq., a partner at Potts & Reilly, L.L.P.

May 29, 2012 – Essay #72 – Amendment XXII – Guest Essayist: Michaela Goertzen, Speechwriter, Office of Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell

May 30, 2012 – Essay #73 – Amendment XXII – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

May 31, 2012 – Essay #74 –Amendment XXIII – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

June 1, 2012 – Essay #75 – Amendment XXIV, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

June 4, 2012 – Essay #76 – Amendment XXIV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 5, 2012 – Essay #77 –Amendment XXV, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

June 6, 2012 – Essay #78 –Amendment XXV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

June 7, 2012 – Essay #79: Amendment XXV: Presidential Succession Section 3 – Horace Cooper, legal commentator and the Director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

June 8, 2012 – Essay #80 – Amendment XXV, Section 4 – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 11, 2012 – Essay #81 – Amendment XXVI, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Janice Brenman, Attorney

June 12, 2012 – Essay #82 – Amendment XXVI, Section Two – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 13, 2012 – Essay #83 –Amendment XXVII – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

June 14, 2012 – Essay #84 – Proposed Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Essayist: David Eastman, 2011 Claremont Institute Abraham Lincoln Fellow

June 15, 2012 – Essay #85 – Proposed Amendment: Titles of Nobility Amendment – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 18, 2012 – Essay #86 – A Look Back in History: Proposed Amendment – Slavery and the States – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 19, 2012 – Essay #87 – Proposed Amendment: Child Labor Ban – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 20, 2012 – Essay #88 – A Look At Another Proposed Amendment: Women’s Equal Rights – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, political and ethics attorney

June 21, 2012 – Essay #89 – Proposed Amendment: D.C. Statehood – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

June 22, 2012 – Essay #90 – America’s experiment in self-government reveals itself in the Amendment process – Guest Essayist: The Honorable John Boehner, 53rd Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Tuesday, February 26, 2013 – Essay # 7 – Second Treatise of Government by John Locke – Guest Essayist: Eric Mack Ph.D., University of Rochester, Professor of Philosophy and the author of John Locke (London: Continuum Press, 2009)

Wednesday, March 6, 2013 – Essay #13 – A Summary View of the Rights of British America by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Wednesday, March 13, 2013 – Essay #18 – Virginia Declaration of Rights by George Mason – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, J.D., Ph.D. Professor and Director of Graduate Studies Department of History, Western Connecticut State University and Author, James Madison and the Making of America

Thursday, March 14, 2013 – Essay #19 – Fast Day Proclamation of the Continental Congress – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, President, Frontiers of Freedom

Tuesday, March 19, 2013 – Essay #22 – Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Gennie Westbrook, Director of Curriculum and Professional Development, The Bill of Rights Institute

Wednesday, March 20, 2013 – Essay #23 – Letter to the Hebrew Congregation by George Washington – Essayist: Robert Lowry Clinton, Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Friday, March 22, 2013 – Essay #25 – Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Monday, March 25, 2013 – Essay #26 – On Property by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Wednesday, March 27, 2013 – Essay #28 – The Articles of Confederation – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., Author of: The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

Monday, April 8, 2013 – Essay #36 – Letters I and II by Federal Farmer: The Debate about the Size and Scope of the Federal Government is Not New – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, President, Frontiers of Freedom

Wednesday, April 10, 2013 – Essay #38 – Draft of the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Brian J. Pawlowski, former Claremont Institute Lincoln Fellow

Thursday, April 11, 2013 – Essay #39 – The Northwest Ordinance – Guest Essayist: Kyle Scott, Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Houston

Friday, April 19, 2013 – Essay #45 – February 6, 1837 Speech on Abolition Petitions by Sen. John C. Calhoun- Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President, Institute for Liberty

Wednesday, April 24, 2013 – Essay #48 – Letter To Edward Everett by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Thursday, April 25, 2013 – Essay #49 – The Missouri Compromise – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Tuesday, April 30, 2013 – Essay #52 – The Alabama Slave Code of 1852 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Friday, May 3, 2013 – Essay #55 – Dred Scott v. Sandford by Justice Roger Taney – Guest Essayist: Jeffrey Reed, former Constitutional Law Professor, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky

Thursday, May 9, 2013 – Essay #59 – Seventh Lincoln-Douglas Debate – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Tuesday, May 14, 2013 – Essay #62 – Reply in the Senate to William Seward by Jefferson Davis – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Friday, May 31, 2013 – Essay #75 – Socialism and Democracy by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director of the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute in Charlottesville, VA

Tuesday, June 4, 2013 – Essay #77 – The Presidency: Making an Old Party Progressive by Theodore Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Thursday, June 6, 2013 – Essay #79 – The Right of the People to Rule by Theodore Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Friday, June 14, 2013 – Essay #85 – Annual Message to Congress by Franklin D. Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: Dr. Roberta Herzberg, Utah State University Department of Political Science

This Week, 63 Years Ago-April 8, 1952: Truman Seizes Control of the Steel Industry by Executive Order-What Did the Supreme Court Decide & Why? Part I – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

How Can Words On Parchment Constrain Executive Overreach? Guest Essayist: James D. Best

What James Madison Teaches Us About NSA Surveillance – Guest Essayist: Logan Beirne

Operation Choke Point: Agencies Getting Around The Constitution’s Protections – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer

What Government By “The Consent Of The Governed” Looks Like – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan

Undemocratic: How Unelected, Unaccountable Bureaucrats Are Stealing Your Liberty and Freedom (Part 1) – Guest Essayist: Jay Sekulow

An Underhanded Usurpation Of Popular Sovereignty – Guest Essayist: Nancy Salvato

Judicial Activism Rescues Obamacare – Guest Essayist: Nancy Salvato

1864, Abraham Lincoln Defeats George McClellan: Constitutional Issues Raised By Lincoln’s Conduct Of The War – Guest Essayist: Daniel A. Cotter