Original Documents

The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America

July 4, 1776 When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect […]

Letter to Henry Lee by Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In his later years, Jefferson answered hundreds of letters, including, in this instance, a query about the Declaration of Independence, explaining that it drew upon a long political and philosophical tradition and reflected principles widely understood by Americans of the founding era. May 8, 1825 Dear Sir: …That George Mason was the author of the […]

Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Written in the tradition of Aristotle’s teacher, Plato–and of Plato’s teacher, Socrates–the Nicomachean Ethics addresses the question, “What is the best life for man?” An extended reflection on virtue, happiness, and friendship, it helped to inform the moral and political thought of America’s Founders. There are echoes of it, for instance, in President George Washington’s […]

The Politics by Aristotle, Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Thomas Jefferson began studying Greek at the age of nine, and later in life employed so many Greek phrases in his letters that John Adams, his frequent correspondent, complained of them. The Founders’ interest in classical languages was not academic, but political and philosophical. Among the ancient books that they drew upon was Aristotle’s Politics, […]

On the Commonwealth by Marcus Tullius Cicero – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

On the Commonwealth 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero (c. 106-43 B.C.) Cicero was the great defender of the Roman republic and a master of oratory. The author of several books on politics, philosophy, and rhetoric, he was the first to speak of natural law as a moral or political law, and was an important influence on […]

The Second Treatise of Government by John Locke – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Locke’s Two Treatises of Government presented a critique of the divine right of kings and outlined the principles of natural rights and government by consent. Written during the 1670s, they were not published until after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the passage of the English Bill of Rights in 1689. Locke was the political […]

Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney (1623-1683) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Involved in some of the same anti-monarchical causes as John Locke, Sidney was caught up in the conspiracy to oust King Charles II. He was beheaded on December 7, 1683, a martyr to the English Whig cause. Fifteen years after his death, his Discourses Concerning Government was published. A hero to John Adams and widely […]

The Constitution of the United States of America – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Constitution of the United States of America Fifty-five delegates from twelve states (Rhode Island declined to participate) traveled to Philadelphia to attend the Constitutional Convention, which began in May 1787. They quickly scrapped the existing Articles of Confederation, and after four months they concluded their business by adopting a new frame of government. On […]

Marbury vs. Madison by John Marshall (1755-1835) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Thomas Jefferson’s election as president is often called the “Revolution of 1800,” because it marked the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another. Despite its uniquely pacific character, the election’s aftermath was marked by partisan rancor. The day before Jefferson took office, President John Adams commissioned fifty-eight Federalist judges.

Fragment on the Constitution and the Union by Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

This never appeared in Lincoln’s public speeches, but it is possible that he composed it while writing his First Inaugural Address. It draws upon the King James translation of Proverbs 25:11–”A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver”–to describe the relationship between the principles of the Declaration and the purpose […]

Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved by James Otis (1725-1783) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Otis rose to prominence in 1761, after he gave a courtroom speech opposing the Writs of Assistance–blanket warrants issued by the British for searching suspect property. He edited that speech into this essay three years later, after the passage of the Sugar Act. Its arguments contain the seed of the American Revolution–an appeal to natural […]

A Summary View of the Rights of British America by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Jefferson began his public career in 1769 in the Virginia House of Burgesses, the colonial legislature. British implementation of the Coercive Acts of 1774 (also known as the Intolerable Acts)–passed in response to the Boston Tea Party–prompted the “Summary View,” Jefferson’s first publication. Written for Virginians who were choosing delegates to the First Continental Congress, […]

An Election Sermon by Gad Hitchcock (1718-1803) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Pastors and ministers were among the highest educated citizens in the American colonies, and often addressed politics from the pulpit. This sermon by Hitchcock was delivered on election day in 1774, in the presence of General Thomas Gage, the British military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. It decries British monarchical rule and celebrates […]

The Farmer Refuted by Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

When Loyalist writings began to appear in New York newspapers in 1775, nineteen-year-old Hamilton responded with an essay defending the colonists’ right of revolution. Still a student at King’s College, he followed up with this second pamphlet, expanding his argument on the purpose of legitimate government. February 23, 1775 I shall, for the present, pass […]

Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1737-1809) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Published anonymously in January 1776 by an Englishman who had come to Philadelphia two years before, Common Sense became the most published work of the founding era. Printed over half a million times in a nation of three million people, it made a passionate case for liberty and against monarchy. Unpopular in later life for […]

Letter to Roger Weightman by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Written just days before his death on July 4, 1826, this letter to the mayor of Washington, D.C., encapsulates the great cause of Jefferson’s life. June 24, 1826 Respected Sir: The kind invitation I receive from you, on the part of the citizens of the city of Washington, to be present with them at their […]

Virginia Declaration of Rights by George Mason (1725-1792) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Virginia Declaration of Rights, drafted by George Mason as a preamble to the Virginia Constitution, is–along with the Declaration of Independence that followed a month later–the clearest statement of the social contract theory of government found in major early American documents. June 12, 1776 A declaration of rights made by the Representatives of the […]

Fast Day Proclamation of the Continental Congress – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The petition of this Fast Day Proclamation was echoed repeatedly by Congresses in early American history. December 11, 1776 Whereas, the war in which the United States are engaged with Great Britain, has not only been prolonged, but is likely to be carried to the greatest extremity; and whereas, it becomes all public bodies, as […]

The Northwest Ordinance – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Adopted by the Congress of the Confederation in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance set forth a model for the expansion of the American republic. Providing a governing structure for the territory that would later become Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, it prohibited slavery, protected religious liberty, and encouraged education. Following the adoption of the Constitution, […]

Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessment by James Madison (1751-1836) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Madison circulated the Memorial and Remonstrance anonymously in 1785 as part of the effort to pass the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. It appeals to Christian citizens by emphasizing that Christianity’s own teachings preclude politically coerced support for particular sects, and to all citizens based on reason.

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom By Thomas Jefferson -Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Jefferson asked to be remembered on his tombstone as author of the Declaration of Independence, father of the University of Virginia, and author of this law. Long delayed because of the contentiousness of the subject and the powerful interests arrayed against it, the Virginia Statute was drafted in 1777, introduced as a bill in the […]

George Washington’s Letter to the Hebrew Congregation – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Constitution of 1787 said little directly about religion, with the notable exception of a ban on religious tests as a requirement for federal office. When Washington was elected president, the Bill of Rights had not yet been adopted. Despite this, in his response to a congratulatory note sent to him by a group of […]

George Washington’s Farewell Address – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Washington had first prepared a farewell address to be delivered in 1792, upon the conclusion of his first term as president. Having been convinced to stand for a second term, he was unanimously re-elected. When he finally issued this address in 1796, it was his last public work. After nearly forty-five years of service, he […]

Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Danbury Baptist Association, aware of Jefferson’s earlier role in overturning the Anglican establishment in Virginia, expressed hope that as president he might help liberate them from the religious constraints in Connecticut. Jefferson’s response, in which he employs the famous “wall of separation between church and state” metaphor, is not a demand for the separation […]

On Property by James Madison – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Madison, known as the “Father of the Constitution,” was elected from Virginia to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1788, where he served four terms. This essay, which then-Congressman Madison wrote for a New York newspaper, connects the idea of property rights as commonly understood to man’s natural rights, culminating in the right of conscience. […]

The Articles of Confederation – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Pennsylvanian John Dickinson–who declined to sign the Declaration of Independence because he believed that the states should be organized politically before declaring independence–wrote the first draft of the Articles of Confederation in 1777. Signed into effect that year and ratified in 1781, the Articles provided the structure of government for the states until the Constitution […]

Circular Letter to the States by George Washington – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

As Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, overseen by a national legislature that struggled to fund the War for Independence, General Washington was as familiar as anyone with the defects of the Articles of Confederation. In this, his last circular letter to the states, which he sent to the thirteen governors, Washington emphasizes the need for […]

Letter to John Jay by George Washington – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Washington writes here as a private citizen to Jay, who as Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the Articles of Confederation witnessed firsthand the Articles’ shortcomings, as each state pursued a different foreign policy. August 15, 1786 Dear Sir: I have to thank you very sincerely for your interesting letter of the twenty-seventh of June, as […]

Letter to James Madison by George Washington – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Washington writes here to Madison, two months before the Constitutional Convention was set to start in Philadelphia. A year earlier, only twelve men from five states attended a gathering held in Annapolis, Maryland, to amend the Articles of Confederation. Both men feared the consequences should this convention similarly fail. March 31, 1787 My dear Sir: […]

Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XIII: Constitution by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XIII: Constitution 1 Thomas Jefferson Virginia, the most populous state, adopted its state constitution in 1776, a month before the Declaration of Independence passed Congress. Jefferson, Virginia’s governor from 1779 to 1781, addressed the problems that plagued the state’s first attempt at self-government in his 1784 book, Notes […]

Vices of the Political System of the United States by James Madison – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this essay, Madison outlines the main issues that the Constitutional Convention should address. His early arrival in Philadelphia allowed him to incorporate his ideas into a recommended plan for the Convention–what came to be called the Virginia Plan–representing no mere revision of the Articles of Confederation, but the adoption of an entirely new Constitution. […]

Letter Transmitting the Constitution by George Washington – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

As they affixed their names to the new Constitution, the Framers understood that their work had just begun. Four months of debate and compromise paled in comparison to the challenge of convincing the states to ratify. Unanimity was not necessary for the Constitution to go into effect–only nine of thirteen states were needed–but they knew […]

Essay I by Brutus – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Supporters of the Constitution dubbed their opponents “Anti-Federalists.” Opponents resented the label, but it stuck. The Anti-Federalist author Brutus–most likely New York lawyer Robert Yates–penned this essay, the first of sixteen, a month after the Constitution was completed. Having attended the first month of the Constitutional Convention, Yates had left, disgusted with what he perceived […]

Letters I and II by Federal Farmer – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Alexander Hamilton acknowledged the Federal Farmer–believed to be either New Yorker Melancton Smith or Virginian Richard Henry Lee–as “the most plausible” Anti-Federalist. Here, the Federal Farmer argues that the federalism of the Constitution is a mirage, for it sets up a structure in which all power will flow to the center.

Essay XI by Brutus – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Here Brutus criticizes the power granted by the Constitution to an independent judiciary. January 31, 1788 The nature and extent of the judicial power of the United States, proposed to be granted by this constitution, claims our particular attention.Much has been said and written upon the subject of this new system on both sides, but […]

Draft of the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Jefferson’s first draft of the Declaration of Independence contained a critique of King George III’s involvement in the slave trade. Although not approved by the entire Second Continental Congress, it indicates that the leading Founders understood the slavery issue in moral terms. 1776 …He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most […]

The Northwest Ordinance by Congress of the Confederation – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Passed when only a single state outlawed slavery, the anti-slavery stance of the Northwest Ordinance–barring slavery in the territories, and thus in future states–gave weight to Abraham Lincoln’s later argument that the Founders sought to place slavery “in the course of ultimate extinction.” July 13, 1787 Article VI …There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary […]

George Washington, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison on Slavery – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

None of the leading Founders ever declared slavery to be a just or beneficial institution. In fact, they hoped to see the slave trade eradicated, and eventually the entire institution of slavery made illegal. George Washington Letter to Robert Morris 1 April 12, 1786 “…[T]here is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than […]

Letter to the English Anti-Slavery Society by John Jay (1745-1829) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In 1777, Jay’s first attempt to abolish slavery in New York failed. In 1788, the state banned the importation of slaves. By 1799, the New York Manumission Society advocated for a bill, signed into law that year by then-Governor Jay, specifying that as of July 4, all children born to slave parents would be freed […]

Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XVIII: Manners by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The primary author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was well aware that his ownership of slaves violated the principles he espoused. 1784 The particular customs and manners that may happen to be received in that State? It is difficult to determine on the standard by which the manners of a nation may be tried, […]

Letter to John Jay by Alexander Hamilton – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Hamilton, a founder of the New York Manumission Society, writes to John Jay, a co-founder of the Society and then-president of the Continental Congress, arguing that slaves should be allowed to fight for the American cause in the War for Independence, earning their “freedom with their muskets.” Eventually, some 5,000 blacks served as soldiers in […]

Letter to Henri Gregoire by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Constitution specified that Congress could not prohibit the importation of slaves until 1808. President Jefferson signed the bill to bring about this prohibition in March 1807 and it went into effect on January 1, 1808. Writing here a year later, he maintains hopes for an end to slavery itself.

Speech on Reception of Abolition Petitions by John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The number of slaves in America had grown from 700,000 in 1790 to over two million in 1830. Northern opposition to slavery was growing in the 1820s and 1830s, as it became clear that hopes for a withering away of slavery were unrealistic. This elicited a similarly strong response

Speech on the Oregon Bill by John C. Calhoun – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Even worse than political errors such as the Northwest Ordinance, Calhoun argues here, are theoretical errors, chief of which is the equality principle of the Declaration of Independence. June 27, 1848 …I turn now to my friends of the South, and ask: What are you prepared to do? If neither the barriers of the constitution […]

Letter to John Holmes by Thomas Jefferson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Awakened to the looming crisis over slavery by the Missouri Compromise, Jefferson foresees in this letter that the Compromise was far from the final word on the matter. April 22, 1820 I thank you, dear Sir, for the copy you have been so kind as to send me of the letter to your constituents on […]

Letter to Edward Everett by James Madison – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this 1830 response to Massachusetts statesman Edward Everett, Madison maintains that a state does not possess the authority to strike down as unconstitutional an act of the federal government. The contrary doctrine, known as nullification, would take on later significance. August 28, 1830 I have duly received your letter in which you refer to […]

The Missouri Compromise – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The sectional struggle over slavery came to a head in 1820. With eleven free states and eleven slave states, if Missouri entered the Union as a slave state, the balance of power would shift toward the South. After several months of debate, a compromise emerged: Maine would enter the Union as a free state, Missouri […]

The Wilmot Proviso – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Early on in the Mexican-American War, America gained control over a vast swath of new territory extending from the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean. In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot proposed a ban on slavery across the region, angering those who advocated on behalf of slavery’s westward expansion. August 8, 1846 Provided, That, as an […]

The Constitution and the Union by Daniel Webster (1782-1852) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Webster began representing Massachusetts in the U.S. Senate in 1813, and by the 1830s had attained a national reputation–in part as a result of his Senate debates with nullification proponent Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina. Webster spent the final decade of his life attempting to avert the growing sectional divide, never wavering in his […]

Alabama Slave Code of 1852 – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Growth in the slave population and threats from abolitionists led Southern states to adopt new slave codes in the mid-nineteenth century. Alabama’s revised code, adopted in 1852 and in effect until the end of the Civil War, built on a previous code from 1833. 1852 Chapter III. Patrols. §983. All white male owners of slaves, […]

Speech on the Kansas-Nebraska Act by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Supporters of the Compromise of 1850 lauded it as a continuation of the Missouri Compromise, which had helped maintain peace for thirty years. But four years later, the Missouri Compromise was eviscerated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Authored by Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas, it was in fact two provisions, one providing for the territory of Nebraska […]

Republican Party Platform of 1856 – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Northern anger toward the Kansas-Nebraska Act reached its zenith in the late spring of 1854, when various anti-slavery forces coalesced in Jackson, Michigan. Organized around the principles of the Declaration of Independence, the Republican Party was born out of this meeting. It would adopt a platform two years later that called for repeal of the […]

Dred Scott v. Sandford by Roger Taney (1777-1864) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Like Stephen Douglas, Supreme Court Chief Justice Taney believed that his response to the slavery controversy would resolve the issue. His ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford had the opposite result, throwing the country into even greater turmoil. The case was brought by a slave, Dred Scott, who was taken by his master into territory […]

Speech on the Dred Scott Decision by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Lincoln argues that Chief Justice Taney’s opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford violated America’s founding principles and rewrote American history. June 26, 1857 …And now as to the Dred Scott decision. That decision declares two propositions–first, that a negro cannot sue in the U.S. Courts; and secondly, that Congress cannot prohibit slavery in the Territories. […]

A House Divided by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Lincoln delivered this speech upon his nomination as the Republican candidate for the U.S. Senate in Illinois, where he would square off against incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas. Drawing the leading metaphor from a passage in the Gospel of Matthew, Lincoln held that pro-slavery forces–Douglas, Franklin Pierce (president when the Kansas-Nebraska Act was adopted), Roger Taney, […]

Speech at Chicago by Stephen Douglas (1813-1861) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

As the primary author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the most vocal defender of the Dred Scott decision, Douglas traveled extensively promoting the concept of popular sovereignty, which he equated with republican self-government. The national reputation he garnered in the process would, he hoped, serve him well in a future presidential bid.

Seventh Lincoln-Douglas Debate – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Lincoln and Douglas agreed to debate in all nine of the state’s congressional districts, with their recent speeches in Chicago and Springfield counting as the opening salvos. Seven debates ensued, each lasting three hours. This seventh and last debate, held in Alton, drew more than 5,000 spectators. Local and national papers–most in the service of […]

The Dividing Line between Federal and Local Authority: Popular Sovereignty in the Territories by Stephen Douglas – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In September 1857, pro-slavery forces in Kansas drafted the Lecompton Constitution. Their anti-slavery opponents declared the document invalid, as they had not participated in its creation. Adhering to the principle of popular sovereignty, Douglas rejected the Lecompton Constitution and called for Kansans to draft a new document. Northern Democrats, dismayed by the armed conflict in […]

Address at Cooper Institute by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

With an eye to the Republican presidential nomination of 1860, Lincoln campaigned vigorously across the North. Responding to Stephen Douglas’s “Dividing Line” speech, he used this address to claim the mantle of America’s Founders for the Republican Party. Employing original research on the anti-slavery views of “our fathers,” Lincoln cast himself as a conservative. The […]

Reply in the Senate to William Seward by Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Senate of 1860 looked little like the Senate of 1790, its proceedings having degenerated into unbridled partisanship. Several years before this debate, South Carolina Congressman Preston Brooks savagely beat Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner following anti-slavery remarks on the Senate floor. The South had few defenders more tenacious than Mississippi’s Senator Jefferson Davis. He had […]

Reply in the Senate to Stephen Douglas by Jefferson Davis – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

A month before this speech, the Democratic National Convention had convened in Charleston, South Carolina. When the delegates failed to adopt an explicitly pro-slavery platform, the Convention dissolved. Rival Southern and Northern Conventions reconvened in June 1860, each nominating their own presidential candidate: Stephen Douglas for the North and John Breckinridge for the South. With […]

South Carolina Secession Declaration – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In December 1860, South Carolina announced its departure from the United States of America, citing Abraham Lincoln’s election as a primary cause. Six states quickly followed South Carolina’s lead, and on February 4, 1861, they banded together to form the Confederate States of America. December 24, 1860

Cornerstone Speech by Alexander Stephens (1812-1883) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Former Senator Jefferson Davis became president of the Confederate government, while former Georgia Congressman Alexander Stephens became vice president. Three weeks after Abraham Lincoln’s inauguration, Stephens delivered this speech in Savannah, identifying the cornerstone of the Confederacy as an idea opposite to the equality principle of the American founding. March 21, 1861 At half past […]

Farewell Address to the Senate by Jefferson Davis – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Most Southern members of Congress followed their states into secession. In this farewell speech, Senator Davis expresses admiration for the late Senator John C. Calhoun, author of the nullification doctrine, and surprisingly invokes the Declaration of Independence in his cause. January 21, 1861 I rise, Mr. President, for the purpose of announcing to the Senate […]

First Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address, delivered a month after the formation of the Confederacy, served as a final plea for Americans to reunite. Lincoln makes clear that he has no intention to change the status of slavery in the states where it exists, having no constitutional authority to do so. He makes equally clear that secession […]

Message to Congress in Special Session by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

On April 12, 1861, a Confederate commander informed the Union forces stationed at Fort Sumter, in the Charleston harbor, of his plans to attack. The Civil War began an hour later. President Lincoln immediately called for 75,000 volunteers. Four states from the upper South seceded over the following month. With Congress out of session, Lincoln […]

The Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, promised emancipation for slaves residing in the Confederacy, unless the rebellious states returned to the Union by January 1 of the following year. The three-month deadline came and went, and slavery ceased to have legal sanction in much of the South. Although complete emancipation did not occur […]

Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

From July 1 to 3, 1863, 160,000 men from the Union and Confederate armies met at Gettysburg in southern Pennsylvania. It would prove to be the turning point of the war, but with more than 50,000 casualties from both sides it was among the most costly of battles. President Lincoln’s speech, delivered four months later, […]

Second Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

The South’s surrender was a month away when Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural. Lincoln looks back on the war and ahead to the task of rebuilding the nation. A little over a month later, he was assassinated. March 4, 1865 Fellow Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office, there […]

Liberalism and Social Action by John Dewey (1859-1952) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

As a leading Progressive scholar from the 1880s onward, Dewey, who taught mainly at Columbia University, devoted much of his life to redefining the idea of education. His thought was influenced by German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, and central to it was a denial of objective truth and an embrace of historicism and moral relativism. As […]

The American Conception of Liberty by Frank Goodnow (1859-1939) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Progressive political science was based on the assumption that society could be organized in such a way that social ills would disappear. Goodnow, president of Johns Hopkins University and the first president of the American Political Science Association, helped pioneer the idea that separating politics from administration was the key to progress. In this speech, […]

What is Progress? by Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

After earning a Ph.D. in both history and political science at Johns Hopkins University, Wilson held various academic positions, culminating in the presidency of Princeton University. Throughout this period, he came to see the Constitution as a cumbersome instrument unfit for the government of a large and vibrant nation. This speech, delivered during his successful […]

Socialism and Democracy by Woodrow Wilson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Wilson makes clear in this article the consequences of rejecting the idea of inherent natural rights for the idea that rights are a positive grant from government. August 22, 1887 Is it possible that in practical America we are becoming sentimentalists? To judge by much of our periodical literature, one would think so. All resolution […]

The President of the United States by Woodrow Wilson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

For Wilson, constitutional checks and balances and the separation of powers are indicative of the flawed thinking of America’s Founders. They are means of limiting government, when the fact is that government alone can provide the people’s needs. Wilson looks to the presidency–the singular voice of the people–as the best hope for overcoming the old […]

The Presidency: Making an Old Party Progressive by Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Roosevelt’s ascension to the presidency in 1901 upon the assassination of William McKinley marked the emergence of Progressivism on the national scene. From trust busting to railroad regulation, Roosevelt sought to expand federal power over a large swath of the American economy. In this excerpt from his autobiography, he offers a view of the Constitution […]

The Study of Administration by Woodrow Wilson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Writing a year before Congress created the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first independent regulatory agency, Wilson argues in this article that it is only through such agencies–separate from the political process and independent of the electorate–that government can pursue its necessary ends. November 2, 1886 I suppose that no practical science is ever studied where there […]

The Right of the People to Rule by Theodore Roosevelt – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Roosevelt relinquished the presidency in 1908, believing that his Progressive legacy lay safely in the hands of his handpicked successor, William Howard Taft. Although Taft expanded many of Roosevelt’s policies and succeeded in passing through Congress the Sixteenth Amendment, permitting a national income tax, Roosevelt challenged Taft in the 1912 Republican primary. Losing the nomination, […]

Progressive Democracy by Herbert Croly (1869-1930) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this book, Croly, a leading Progressive theorist and founder of The New Republic magazine, criticizes the Founders’ fear of tyranny of the majority and rejects their idea that government exists to protect individual rights. 1915 Chapter XII: The Advent of Direct Government …If economic, social, political and technical conditions had remained very much as they were […]

The Inspiration of the Declaration by Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

President Coolidge delivered this speech on the 150th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Rejecting Progressivism root and branch, he defends America’s founding principles. July 5, 1926 We meet to celebrate the birthday of America. The coming of a new life always excites our interest. Although we know in the case of the individual that […]

Commonwealth Club Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Delivered by Roosevelt to California’s Commonwealth Club during his first run for the White House, this speech was penned by Adolf Berle, a noted scholar and a member of Roosevelt’s “Brain Trust” who drew deeply upon earlier Progressive thought, especially that of John Dewey. September 23, 1932 …I want to speak not of politics but […]

Democratic Convention Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Having launched the New Deal, an ambitious program of political and economic re-engineering aimed at ending the Great Depression, President Roosevelt accepted his party’s nomination to run for a second term. In this speech at the 1936 Democratic Convention, he defends his programs–some of which had been struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court–and […]

What Good’s a Constitution? by Winston Churchill (1874-1965) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Written soon after Franklin Roosevelt’s Democratic Convention Address of 1936, this article by British statesman Winston Churchill points to the wide gulf between Churchill’s and Roosevelt’s economic views, even if five years later they would forge a close wartime alliance. Beyond their differences on economics, Churchill sees the American Constitution as an enduring source of […]

Annual Message to Congress by Franklin D. Roosevelt – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

As victory in the Second World War looked more and more likely, President Roosevelt turned his attention to postwar America. In this speech he proposes a “second Bill of Rights.” January 11, 1944 …It is our duty now to begin to lay the plans and determine the strategy for the winning of a lasting peace […]

Commencement Address at Yale University by John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

President Kennedy’s New Frontier policies were consistent with the policies of his Progressive predecessors. Current problems, he suggests in this speech, call for technical expertise rather than old ideas. June 11, 1962 President Griswold, members of the faculty, graduates and their families, ladies and gentlemen: Let me begin by expressing my appreciation for the very […]

Remarks at the University of Michigan by Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this commencement address, President Johnson introduces his Progressive idea of a “Great Society.” May 22, 1964 President Hatcher, Governor Romney, Senators McNamara and Hart, Congressmen Meader and Staebler, and other members of the fine Michigan delegation, members of the graduating class, my fellow Americans: It is a great pleasure to be here today. This […]

Commencement Address at Howard University by Lyndon B. Johnson – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this commencement address, President Johnson calls for a redefinition of equality. June 4, 1965 Dr. Nabrit, my fellow Americans: I am delighted at the chance to speak at this important and this historic institution. Howard has long been an outstanding center for the education of Negro Americans. Its students are of every race and […]

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

In this nationally televised speech in support of Barry Goldwater, the 1964 Republican Party presidential candidate, Reagan challenges the Progressive principles behind President Johnson’s Great Society. The speech propelled Reagan to national prominence. October 27, 1964 I am going to talk of controversial things. I make no apology for this. I have been talking on […]

First Inaugural Address by Ronald Reagan – Reprinted from The U.S. Constitution, A Reader, Published by Hillsdale College

Breaking with historical precedent, Reagan’s first inauguration was held on the Capitol’s West Front, allowing him to refer in his speech to the presidential memorials and to Arlington National Cemetery in the distance. The first post-New Deal president to challenge the principles of the New Deal, Reagan presents his opposition in terms of reviving the […]

Essays on Founding Documents/Readings

August 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 85 – Some Final Thoughts, From McLean’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

August 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 83 – The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury, From McLEAN’S Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kelly Shackelford, President/CEO of the Liberty Institute

August 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 71 and Federalist No. 72 – Cathy Gillespie

July 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 64 – The Powers of the Senate, From the New York Packet (John Jay) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

July 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 63 – The Senate Continued, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kyle Scott, Political Science Department and Honors College Professor at the University of Houston

July 12 – Federalist No. 54 – The Apportionment of Members Among the States, From the New York Packet (Madison or Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 43 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered, for the Independent Journal (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 42 – The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Legal Commentator and Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

June 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 39 – The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: John S. Baker, Jr., the Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

June 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 30 – Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet – Guest Blogger: Attorney Janice R. Brenman

May 31, 2010 – Federalist No. 24 – The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President for Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

May 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 20 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, from the New York Packet (Hamilton & Madison) – Guest Blogger: William C. Duncan, director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 19 – Federalist No. 16 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Marc S. Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and Associates LLC and graduate of Boston College Law School

April 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 2 – Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence, for the Independent Journal (Jay) – Guest Blogger: Marc S. Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and Associates LLC and graduate of Boston College Law School

April 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 1, General Introduction, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Legal Commentator and Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

April 26, 2010 – Articles IV – VII of the U.S. Constitution – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 21, 2010 – Article I of the U.S. Constitution – Guest Blogger: David Bobb, Director and Lecturer in Political Science | Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship | Hillsdale College

April 27, 2010 – The Amendments to the United States Constitution – Cathy Gillespie

February 21, 2011 – Analyzing the Constitution for 90 Days – The Preamble to the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: David Bobb, Ph.D., director of the Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington, D.C.

February 24, 2011 – Article I, Section 02, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: W. B. Allen, Havre de Grace, MD

February 28, 2011 – Article I, Section 02, Clause 5 and Section 3, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

March 10, 2011 – Article I, Section 05, Clause 3-4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner, Executive Director, The Dreyfuss Initiative on Civics

March 11, 2011 – Article I, Section 06, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 21, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 02 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 23, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 04 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

March 24, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 05-06 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Troy Kickler, Founding Director of North Carolina History Project and Editor of northcarolinahistory.org

March 25, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 07-08 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Allison Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

March 29, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 10-13 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

March 30, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 14-16 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: George Schrader, Student of Political Science at Hillsdale College

April 11, 2011 – Article I, Section 10, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 12, 2011 – Article I, Section 10, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Justin Butterfield, Constitutional Attorney, Liberty Institute

April 13, 2011 – Article I, Section 10, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager at the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies, The Heritage Foundation

May 4, 2011 – Article III, Section 2, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 10, 2011 – Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Cynthia Dunbar, attorney, author, speaker and Assistant Professor of Law at Liberty University

May 11, 2011 – Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 16, 2011 – Article V of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 17, 2011 – Article VI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

May 18, 2011 – Article VII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dan Morenoff, Attorney

June 7, 2011 – Amendment XIV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Kevin Theriot, Senior Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

June 10, 2011 – Amendment XVII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

February 20, 2012 – Essay #1 – The Amendment Process – Guest Essayist: Dr. Larry P. Arnn, president of Hillsdale College, and author of The Founders’ Key: The Divine and Natural Connection Between the Declaration and the Constitution and What We Risk by Losing It

February 21, 2012 – Essay #2 – The Bill of Rights, Purpose and Benefits – Guest Essayist: Richard Brookhiser, Author, James Madison

The Bill Of Rights & 25 Things The Government Cannot Make You Do – How Many Can You Name?

February 23, 2012 – Essay #4 – Amendment I: The Establishment Clause – Guest Essayist:David J. Bobb, Ph.D., director of the Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington, D.C.

February 27, 2012 – Essay #6 – Amendment I: Congress Shall make no law….abridging the freedom of speech – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

March 1, 2012 – Essay #9 – Amendment I: Right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

February 28, 2012 – Essay #7 – Amendment I: Freedom of the Press – Guest Essayist: James C. Duff, CEO of the Newseum and the Diversity Institute, and President and CEO of the Freedom Forum

Friday, March 2, 2012 – Essay #10 – Amendment I: Guest Essayist: Justin Dyer, Ph.D., Author and Professor of Political Science, University of Missouri

March 5, 2012 – Essay #11 – Amendment II: Well Regulated Militia Being Necessary to the Security of a Free State – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 14, 2012 – Essay #18 – Amendment V: The Right to a Grand Jury – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

March 8, 2012 – Essay #14 – Amendment III: Situation in Time of War – Guest Essayist: Andrew Dykstal, a Junior at Hillsdale College

March 7, 2012 – Essay #13 – Amendment III: Freedom From Quartering Soldiers in Peacetime – Guest Essayist: William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

March 12, 2012 – Essay #16 – Amendment IV: Warrants to Have Probable Cause – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Senior Fellow with the Heartland Institute

March 13, 2012 – Essay #17 – Amendment IV: Warrants Must Describe the Place and Persons With Particularity – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 15, 2012 – Essay #19 – Amendment V: Right Against Double Jeopardy – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 16, 2012 – Essay #20 – Amendment V: Right Against Self- Incrimination – Guest Essayist: Professor Kyle Scott, Professor of American Politics and Constitutional Law, Duke University

March 20, 2012 – Essay #22 – Amendment V: Right to Just Compensation in Eminent Domain Matters – Guest Essayist: Gordon S. Jones, Utah Valley University

March 21, 2012 – Essay #23 – Amendment V – Guest Essayist: Michelle Griffes, Manager of Programs and Curriculum Development at the Bill of Rights Institute

March 23, 2012 – Essay #25 – Amendment VI: Right to a Public Trial – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

March 29, 2012 – Essay #29 – Amendment VI: Right to Have Assistance of Counsel – Guest Essayist: Professor Kyle Scott, Professor of American Politics and Constitutional Law, Duke University

March 30, 2012 – Essay #30 – Amendment VI – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

April 2, 2012 – Essay #31 – Amendment VII: Right to Trial in Civil Disputes – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

April 3, 2012 – Essay # 32 – Amendment VII: Trier of Fact Versus Law – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP law firm

April 5, 2012 – Essay #34 – Amendment VIII: Right Against Excessive Fines – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

April 6, 2012 – Essay # 35 – Amendment VIII: Right Against Cruel and Unusual Punishment – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

April 9, 2012 – Essay #36 – Amendment VIII: Guest Essayist: Matthew Mehan, Publius Fellow and U.S. History Teacher

April 10, 2012 – Essay #37 – Amendment IX: Rights Which Are Enumerated – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

April 11, 2012 – Essay #38 – Amendment IX: Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan Ph.D., author of The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

April 12, 2012 – Essay #39 – Amendment X: Our Constitution a Grant of Limited Powers to the National Government – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

April 13, 2012 – Essay #40 – Amendment X: Rights Reserved to the States and the People – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, an attorney and President of Frontiers of Freedom

April 16, 2012 – Essay #41 – Amendment X: Modern Issues of States’ Rights – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan Ph.D., author of The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

April 17, 2012 – Essay #42 – Amendment XI: Right of States to Sovereign Immunity – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 18, 2012 – Essay #43 – Amendment XII: Reforming the Electoral College – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross, Author, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College

April 20, 2012 – Essay #45 – Amendment XII: Circumstances Allowing the Senate to Choose the Vice-President – Guest Scholar: Hans Eicholz, Historian and Senior Fellow with Liberty Fund, Inc., an educational foundation based in Indianapolis, Indiana

Monday, April 23, 2012 – Essay #46 – Amendment XIII: Section 1 – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

April 25, 2012 – Essay #48 – Amendment XIV, Section 1 – Citizenship Defined – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 26, 2012 – Essay #49 – Amendment XIV Privileges or Immunities – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, M.P.Aff., J.D., Ph.D., Associate professor of the Department of History and Non-Western Cultures at Western Connecticut State University

April 27, 2012 – Essay #50 – Amendment XIV Due Process Protection – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LoMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

Monday, April 30, 2012 – Essay #51 – Amendment XIV, Section 1: Equal Protection Under the Law – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, May 1, 2012 – Essay # 52 – Amendment XIV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

Wednesday, May 2, 2012 – Essay # 53 – Amendment XIV, Section 3 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

Thursday, May 3, 2012 – Essay # 54 – Amendment XIV, Section 4 – Guest Essayist: Timothy Sandefur, Author and a principal attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation

May 7, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: Justin Dyer, Ph.D., Author and Professor of Political Science, University of Missouri

May 7, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: Robert P. George, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, Director of the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, Princeton University

May 8, 2012 – Essay #57 – Amendment XV – Guest Essayist: Colin Hanna, President, Let Freedom Ring

May 10, 2012 – Essay #59 – Amendment XVI – Guest Essayist: Marc Lampkin, Shareholder at Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck and graduate of the Boston College Law School

May 14, 2012 – Essay #61 – Amendment XVII: Direct Election of Senators – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

May 17, 2012 – Essay #64 – Amendment XVIII, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 18, 2012 – Essay #65 – Amendment XIX – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

May 6, 2012 – Essay #56 – Amendment XIV – The 14th Amendment’s Impact on the Constitution – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, a partner in the law firm of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP

May 21, 2012 – Essay #66 – Amendment XX, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Frank M. Reilly, Esq., a partner at Potts & Reilly, L.L.P.

May 22, 2012 – Essay #67 – Amendment XX, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Marc Lampkin, Shareholder at Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck and graduate of the Boston College Law School

May 23, 2012 – Essay #68 – Amendment XX, Section 3 – Guest Essayist: David J. Bobb, Director, Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship in Washington, D.C., and lecturer in politics

May 25, 2012 – Essay #70 – Amendment XXI, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Lawrence J. Spiwak, President of the Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies

May 29, 2012 – Essay #72 – Amendment XXII – Guest Essayist: Michaela Goertzen, Speechwriter, Office of Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell

May 30, 2012 – Essay #73 – Amendment XXII – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

June 1, 2012 – Essay #75 – Amendment XXIV, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

June 4, 2012 – Essay #76 – Amendment XXIV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 5, 2012 – Essay #77 –Amendment XXV, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

June 6, 2012 – Essay #78 –Amendment XXV, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

June 7, 2012 – Essay #79: Amendment XXV: Presidential Succession Section 3 – Horace Cooper, legal commentator and the Director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

June 11, 2012 – Essay #81 – Amendment XXVI, Section 1 – Guest Essayist: Janice Brenman, Attorney

June 13, 2012 – Essay #83 –Amendment XXVII – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

June 14, 2012 – Essay #84 – Proposed Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Essayist: David Eastman, 2011 Claremont Institute Abraham Lincoln Fellow

June 18, 2012 – Essay #86 – A Look Back in History: Proposed Amendment – Slavery and the States – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation, and a legal commentator

June 22, 2012 – Essay #90 – America’s experiment in self-government reveals itself in the Amendment process – Guest Essayist: The Honorable John Boehner, 53rd Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Introductory Essay by Dr. David Bobb, Director, Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, Hillsdale College

Tuesday, February 19, 2013 – Essay #2- The Declaration of Independence Part II – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

Wednesday, February 20, 2013 – Essay #3 – The Letter to Henry Lee by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Thursday, February 21, 2013 – Essay #4 – Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Friday, February 22, 2013 – Essay #5 – The Politics by Aristotle – Guest Essayist: Kyle Scott, Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Houston

Monday, February 25, 2013 – Essay #6 – On the Commonwealth by Marcus Tullius Cicero – Guest Essayist: Robert Frank Pence, Founder, The Pence Group

Tuesday, February 26, 2013 – Essay # 7 – Second Treatise of Government by John Locke – Guest Essayist: Eric Mack Ph.D., University of Rochester, Professor of Philosophy and the author of John Locke (London: Continuum Press, 2009)

Wednesday, February 27, 2013 – Essay #8 – Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Thursday, February 28, 2013 – Essay #9 – The US Constitution – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Friday, March 1, 2013 – Essay #10 – Marbury vs. Madison by John Marshall – Guest Essayist: Steven H. Aden, Senior Counsel and Vice President of the Center for Life at Alliance Defending Freedom

Monday, March 4, 2013 – Essay #11 – Fragment on the Constitution and the Union by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Hadley Heath, Senior Policy Analyst at the Independent Women’s Forum

Tuesday, March 5, 2013 – Essay #12 – Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved by James Otis – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Wednesday, March 6, 2013 – Essay #13 – A Summary View of the Rights of British America by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Thursday, March 7, 2013 – Essay #14 – An Election Sermon by Gad Hitchcock – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

Friday, March 8, 2013 – Essay #15 – The Farmer Refuted by Alexander Hamilton – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Monday, March 11, 2013 – Essay #16 – Common Sense by Thomas Paine – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner, Co-Founder, George Washington Institute of Living Ethics, Shepherd University

Wednesday, March 13, 2013 – Essay #18 – Virginia Declaration of Rights by George Mason – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, J.D., Ph.D. Professor and Director of Graduate Studies Department of History, Western Connecticut State University and Author, James Madison and the Making of America

Thursday, March 14, 2013 – Essay #19 – Fast Day Proclamation of the Continental Congress – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, President, Frontiers of Freedom

Friday, March 15, 2013 – Essay #20 – The Northwest Ordinance – Guest Essayist: Allison R. Hayward, political and ethics attorney

Tuesday, March 12, 2013 – Essay #17 – Letter to Roger Weightman by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner, Co-Founder, George Washington Institute of Living Ethics, Shepherd University

Monday, March 18, 2013 – Essay #21 – Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Justin Butterfield, Religious Liberty Attorney at the Liberty Institute

Tuesday, March 19, 2013 – Essay #22 – Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Gennie Westbrook, Director of Curriculum and Professional Development, The Bill of Rights Institute

Wednesday, March 20, 2013 – Essay #23 – Letter to the Hebrew Congregation by George Washington – Essayist: Robert Lowry Clinton, Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Thursday, March 21, 2013 – Essay #24 – Farewell Address by George Washington – Guest Essayist: Justin Butterfield, Religious Liberty Attorney at the Liberty Institute

Friday, March 22, 2013 – Essay #25 – Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Monday, March 25, 2013 – Essay #26 – On Property by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Tuesday, March 26, 2013 – Essay #27 – The Articles of Confederation – Guest Essayist: Dr. Charles K. Rowley, General Director of The Locke Institute and Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University

Wednesday, March 27, 2013 – Essay #28 – The Articles of Confederation – Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., Author of: The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

Thursday, March 28, 2013 – Essay #29 – Circular Letter to the States by George Washington – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper: Legal commentator and Fellow at the Center for Political and Constitutional Studies at Frontiers for Freedom

Friday, March 29, 2013 – Essay #30 – Letter to John Jay by George Washington – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Monday, April 1, 2013 – Essay #31 – Letter to James Madison by George Washington – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Tuesday, April 2, 2013 – Essay #32 – Notes on the State of Virginia Query XIII: Constitution by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Wednesday, April 3, 2013 – Essay #33 – Vices of the Political System of the United States by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, J.D., Ph.D., Professor and Director of Graduate Studies Department of History, Western Connecticut State University and Author, James Madison and the Making of America

Thursday, April 4, 2013 – Essay #34 – George Washington’s Letter Transmitting the Constitution – Guest Essayist: Geordan Kushner, Fellow at the Mathew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Friday, April 5, 2013 – Essay #35 – Essay I by Brutus – Guest Essayist: Justin Dyer, Ph.D., Author and Professor of Political Science, University of Missouri

Monday, April 8, 2013 – Essay #36 – Letters I and II by Federal Farmer: The Debate about the Size and Scope of the Federal Government is Not New – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, President, Frontiers of Freedom

Tuesday, April 9, 2013 – Essay #37 – Essay XI by Brutus – Guest Essayist: Mr. Robert Frank Pence, Founder, the Pence Group

Wednesday, April 10, 2013 – Essay #38 – Draft of the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Brian J. Pawlowski, former Claremont Institute Lincoln Fellow

Thursday, April 11, 2013 – Essay #39 – The Northwest Ordinance – Guest Essayist: Kyle Scott, Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Houston

Friday, April 12, 2013 – Essay #40 – George Washington, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison on Slavery – Guest Essayist: Julie Silverbrook, Executive Director of The Constitutional Sources Project

Monday, April 15, 2013 – Essay #41 – Notes on the State of VA, Query XVIII: Manners by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Paul Schwennesen, southern Arizona rancher and Director of the Agrarian Freedom Project

Tuesday, April 16, 2013 – Essay #42 – Letter to John Jay by Alexander Hamilton, March 14, 1779 – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, attorney in Washington, D.C.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013 – Essay #43 – Letter to the English Anti-Slavery Society by John Jay – Guest Essayist: Brenda Hafera, Finance and Events Co-Ordinator at the Matthew J. Ryan Center For the Study of Free Institutions and the Public Good at Villanova University

Thursday, April 18, 2013 – Essay #44 – Letter to Henri Gregoire by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: Logan Beirne, Olin Scholar at Yale Law School and author of Blood of Tyrants: George Washington & the Forging of the Presidency

Friday, April 19, 2013 – Essay #45 – February 6, 1837 Speech on Abolition Petitions by Sen. John C. Calhoun- Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President, Institute for Liberty

Monday, April 22, 2013 – Essay #46 – Speech on the Oregon Bill by Sen. John C. Calhoun, June 27, 1848 – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

Tuesday, April 23, 2013 – Essay #47 – Letter to John Holmes by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Wednesday, April 24, 2013 – Essay #48 – Letter To Edward Everett by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Thursday, April 25, 2013 – Essay #49 – The Missouri Compromise – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Friday, April 26, 2013 – Essay #50 – The Wilmot Proviso – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

Monday, April 29, 2013 – Essay #51 – Daniel Webster’s “The Constitution and the Union” – Guest Essayist: Logan Beirne, Olin Scholar at Yale Law School and author of Blood of Tyrants: George Washington & the Forging of the Presidency

Tuesday, April 30, 2013 – Essay #52 – The Alabama Slave Code of 1852 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Wednesday, May 1, 2013 – Essay #53 – Speech on the Kansas-Nebraska Act by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Frank M. Reilly, partner at the law firm of Potts & Reilly, L.L.P., Horseshoe Bay, Texas

Thursday, May 2, 2013 – Essay #54 – Republican Party Platform of 1856 – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner, Former Chief Administrative Officer of the U.S. House of Representatives

Friday, May 3, 2013 – Essay #55 – Dred Scott v. Sandford by Justice Roger Taney – Guest Essayist: Jeffrey Reed, former Constitutional Law Professor, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky

Monday, May 6, 2013 – Essay #56 – Speech on the Dred Scott Decision by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, May 7, 2013 – Essay #57 – “A House Divided” by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director for the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Wednesday, May 8, 2013 – Essay #58 – Speech at Chicago by Stephen Douglas – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director for the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Thursday, May 9, 2013 – Essay #59 – Seventh Lincoln-Douglas Debate – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Friday, May 10, 2013 – Essay #60 – “The Dividing Line between Federal and Local Authority: Popular Sovereignty in the Territories” by Stephen Douglas – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director for the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Monday, May 13, 2013 – Essay #61 – Address at Cooper Institute by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Brenda Hafera, Finance and Events Co-Ordinator at the Matthew J. Ryan Center For the Study of Free Institutions and the Public Good at Villanova University

Tuesday, May 14, 2013 – Essay #62 – Reply in the Senate to William Seward by Jefferson Davis – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Wednesday, May 15, 2013 – Essay #63 – Reply in the Senate to Stephen Douglas by Jefferson Davis – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Thursday, May 16, 2013 – Essay #63 – South Carolina Secession Declaration – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a fellow with Constituting America as well as an adjunct fellow with the National Center for Public Policy Research

Friday, May 17, 2013 – Essay #65 – Cornerstone Speech by Alexander Stephens – Guest Essayist: David Eastman, Claremont Institute Abraham Lincoln Fellow

Monday, May 20, 2013 – Essay #66 -Farewell Address to the Senate by Jefferson Davis – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, May 21, 2013 – Essay #67 – First Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

Wednesday, May 22, 2013 – Essay #68 – Message to Congress in Special Session by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator, contributor with Constituting America and adjunct fellow with the National Center for Public Policy Research

Thursday, May 23, 2013 – Essay #69 – The Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln – Scot Faulkner, Former Chief Administrative Officer of the U.S. House of Representatives and currently President of Friends of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

Friday, May 24, 2013 – Essay #70 – The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

Monday, May 27, 2013 – Essay #71 – Second Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University and Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Tuesday, May 28, 2013 – Essay #72 – Liberalism and Social Action by John Dewey (1859-1952) – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director for the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute in Charlottesville, VA

Wednesday, May 29, 2013 – Essay #73 – The American Conception of Liberty by Frank Goodnow – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

Thursday, May 30, 2013 – Essay #74 – “What is Progress?” by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: Robert Clinton, Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Friday, May 31, 2013 – Essay #75 – Socialism and Democracy by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director of the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute in Charlottesville, VA

Monday, June 3, 2013 – Essay #76 – The President of the United States by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, June 4, 2013 – Essay #77 – The Presidency: Making an Old Party Progressive by Theodore Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Wednesday, June 5, 2013 – Essay #78 – The Study of Administration by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: George Landrith, President of Frontiers of Freedom

Thursday, June 6, 2013 – Essay #79 – The Right of the People to Rule by Theodore Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Friday, June 7, 2013 – Essay #80 – Progressive Democracy by Herbert Croly – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Monday, June 10, 2013 – Essay #81 – The Inspiration Of The Declaration by Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Tuesday, June 11, 2013 – Essay #82 – “Commonwealth Club Address” by Franklin D. Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director of the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Wednesday, June 12, 2013 – Essay #83 – Democratic Convention Address by Franklin Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director of the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Thursday, June 13, 2013 – Essay #84 – What Good’s a Constitution? by Winston Churchill – Guest Essayist: Troy Kickler, Ph.D., Founding Director, North Carolina History Project and editor of www.northcarolinahistory.org

Friday, June 14, 2013 – Essay #85 – Annual Message to Congress by Franklin D. Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: Dr. Roberta Herzberg, Utah State University Department of Political Science

Monday, June 17, 2013 – Essay #86 – Commencement Address at Yale University by John F. Kennedy – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director of the Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Tuesday, June 18, 2013 – Essay #87 – Remarks at the University of Michigan by Lyndon B. Johnson – Guest Essayist: J. Eric Wise, Partner at Gibson Dunn & Crutcher LLP, New York City

Wednesday, June 19, 2013 – Essay #88 – Commencement Address at Howard University by Lyndon B. Johnson – Guest Essayist: David J. Bobb, Director, Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, Hillsdale College, Washington, D.C.

Friday, June 21, 2013 – Essay #90 – First Inaugural Address by Ronald Reagan – Guest Essayist: The Honorable John Boehner, 53rd Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Thursday, June 20, 2013 – Essay #89 – “A Time for Choosing” by Ronald Reagan – Guest Essayist: The Honorable Jim Miller, President Reagan’s Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and Member of his Cabinet

Could a President Take Over The Coal Industry? It Happened With The Steel Industry And Congress Did Nothing – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

To Rein In Spending, Congress Must Act – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner

How Did Executive Overreach Come About? How Was It Excused? Woodrow Wilson’s Role…. – Guest Essayist: Professor Will Morrisey

How Can Words On Parchment Constrain Executive Overreach? Guest Essayist: James D. Best

Congress’ Communication Breakdown – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner

The Inevitability of Executive Overreach – Guest Essayist: Kyle Scott

Stop Using The IRS As A Bludgeon – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

An Underhanded Usurpation Of Popular Sovereignty – Guest Essayist: Nancy Salvato

How The Federalists Viewed Human Nature And Its Impact on The Resulting Government System In The United States of America (Part 1) – Guest Essayist: Amy Rofail

How The Federalists Viewed Human Nature And Its Impact on The Resulting Government System In The United States of America (Part 2) – Guest Essayist: Amy Rofail

Immigration Reform And Executive Orders: Imperfect Together – Guest Essayist: Will Morrisey

Untried Weapons – Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 3) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman

Untried Weapons – Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 5) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman

1868, Constitutional Issues Surrounding Black Suffrage – Guest Essayist: Professor Forrest Nabors