Original Documents

Federalist No. 1

General Introduction For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: AFTER an unequivocal experience of the inefficiency of the subsisting federal government, you are called upon to deliberate on a new Constitution for the United States of America. The subject speaks its own importance; comprehending in its […]

Federalist No. 2

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence For the Independent Journal. Author: John Jay To the People of the State of New York: WHEN the people of America reflect that they are now called upon to decide a question, which, in its consequences, must prove one of the most important that ever engaged their attention, the […]

Federalist No. 3

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence For the Independent Journal. Author: John Jay To the People of the State of New York: IT IS not a new observation that the people of any country (if, like the Americans, intelligent and wellinformed) seldom adopt and steadily persevere for many years in an […]

Federalist No. 4

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence For the Independent Journal. Author: John Jay To the People of the State of New York: MY LAST paper assigned several reasons why the safety of the people would be best secured by union against the danger it may be exposed to by JUST causes […]

Federalist No. 5

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence For the Independent Journal. Author: John Jay To the People of the State of New York: QUEEN ANNE, in her letter of the 1st July, 1706, to the Scotch Parliament, makes some observations on the importance of the UNION then forming between England and Scotland, […]

Federalist No. 6

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE three last numbers of this paper have been dedicated to an enumeration of the dangers to which we should be exposed, in a state of disunion, from the arms and arts of […]

Federalist No. 7

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT IS sometimes asked, with an air of seeming triumph, what inducements could the States have, if disunited, to make war upon each other? It would be a full […]

Federalist No. 8

The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States From the New York Packet. Tuesday, November 20, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: ASSUMING it therefore as an established truth that the several States, in case of disunion, or such combinations of them as might happen to be formed out of […]

Federalist No. 9

The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: A FIRM Union will be of the utmost moment to the peace and liberty of the States, as a barrier against domestic faction and insurrection. It is impossible to read […]

Federalist No. 10

The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection From the New York Packet. Friday, November 23, 1787. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: AMONG the numerous advantages promised by a well-constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break […]

Federalist No. 11

The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE importance of the Union, in a commercial light, is one of those points about which there is least room to entertain a difference of opinion, and […]

Federalist No. 12

The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue From the New York Packet. Tuesday, November 27, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE effects of Union upon the commercial prosperity of the States have been sufficiently delineated. Its tendency to promote the interests of revenue will be the […]

Federalist No. 13

Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: As CONNECTED with the subject of revenue, we may with propriety consider that of economy. The money saved from one object may be usefully applied to another, and there will […]

Federalist No. 14

Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered From the New York Packet. Friday, November 30, 1787. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: WE HAVE seen the necessity of the Union, as our bulwark against foreign danger, as the conservator of peace among ourselves, as the guardian of […]

Federalist No. 15

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IN THE course of the preceding papers, I have endeavored, my fellow-citizens, to place before you, in a clear and convincing light, the importance of Union to your political safety […]

Federalist No. 16

The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union From the New York Packet. Tuesday, December 4, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE tendency of the principle of legislation for States, or communities, in their political capacities, as it has been exemplified by […]

Federalist No. 17

The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union For the Independent Journal. Tuesday, December 4, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: AN OBJECTION, of a nature different from that which has been stated and answered, in my last address, may perhaps be likewise […]

Federalist No. 18

The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton and James Madison To the People of the State of New York: AMONG the confederacies of antiquity, the most considerable was that of the Grecian republics, associated under the Amphictyonic council. From the best accounts transmitted of […]

Federalist No. 19

The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton and James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE examples of ancient confederacies, cited in my last paper, have not exhausted the source of experimental instruction on this subject. There are existing institutions, […]

Federalist No. 20

The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union From the New York Packet. Tuesday, December 11, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton and James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE United Netherlands are a confederacy of republics, or rather of aristocracies of a very remarkable texture, yet confirming all […]

Federalist No. 21

Other Defects of the Present Confederation For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: HAVING in the three last numbers taken a summary review of the principal circumstances and events which have depicted the genius and fate of other confederate governments, I shall now proceed in the enumeration […]

Federalist No. 22

The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation From the New York Packet. Friday, December 14, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IN ADDITION to the defects already enumerated in the existing federal system, there are others of not less importance, which concur in rendering it altogether […]

Federalist No. 23

The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union From the New York Packet. Tuesday, December 18, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE necessity of a Constitution, at least equally energetic with the one proposed, to the preservation of the […]

Federalist No. 24

The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: To THE powers proposed to be conferred upon the federal government, in respect to the creation and direction of the national forces, I have met with but one specific objection, which, […]

Federalist No. 25

The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered From the New York Packet. Friday, December 21, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT MAY perhaps be urged that the objects enumerated in the preceding number ought to be provided for by the State governments, […]

Federalist No. 26

The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT WAS a thing hardly to be expected that in a popular revolution the minds of men should stop at that happy mean which marks the […]

Federalist No. 27

The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered From the New York Packet. Tuesday, December 25, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT HAS been urged, in different shapes, that a Constitution of the kind proposed by the convention […]

Federalist No. 28

The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THAT there may happen cases in which the national government may be necessitated to resort to force, cannot be denied. Our own […]

Federalist No. 29

Concerning the Militia From the Daily Advertiser. Thursday, January 10, 1788 Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE power of regulating the militia, and of commanding its services in times of insurrection and invasion are natural incidents to the duties of superintending the common defense, and of watching over the […]

Federalist No. 30

Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the New York Packet. Friday, December 28, 1787. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT HAS been already observed that the federal government ought to possess the power of providing for the support of the national forces; in which proposition was intended to […]

Federalist No. 31

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the New York Packet. Tuesday, January 1, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IN DISQUISITIONS of every kind, there are certain primary truths, or first principles, upon which all subsequent reasonings must depend. These contain an internal evidence […]

Federalist No. 32

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the Daily Advertiser. Thursday, January 3, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: ALTHOUGH I am of opinion that there would be no real danger of the consequences which seem to be apprehended to the State governments from a […]

Federalist No. 33

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the Daily Advertiser. Thursday, January 3, 1788 Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE residue of the argument against the provisions of the Constitution in respect to taxation is ingrafted upon the following clause. The last clause of the […]

Federalist No. 34

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the New York Packet. Friday, January 4, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: I FLATTER myself it has been clearly shown in my last number that the particular States, under the proposed Constitution, would have COEQUAL authority with […]

Federalist No. 35

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: BEFORE we proceed to examine any other objections to an indefinite power of taxation in the Union, I shall make one general remark; which is, that if the jurisdiction of […]

Federalist No. 36

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation From the New York Packet. Tuesday, January 8, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: WE HAVE seen that the result of the observations, to which the foregoing number has been principally devoted, is, that from the natural operation of […]

Federalist No. 37

Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government From the Daily Advertiser. Friday, January 11, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: IN REVIEWING the defects of the existing Confederation, and showing that they cannot be supplied by a government of less energy than that […]

Federalist No. 38

The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed From the New York Packet. Tuesday, January 15, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: IT IS not a little remarkable that in every case reported by ancient history, in which government has been established […]

Federalist No. 39

The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles For the Independent Journal. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE last paper having concluded the observations which were meant to introduce a candid survey of the plan of government reported by the convention, we now proceed to the execution of that […]

Federalist No. 40

The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained From the New York Packet. Friday, January 18, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE SECOND point to be examined is, whether the convention were authorized to frame and propose this mixed Constitution. The powers of […]

Federalist No. 41

General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution For the Independent Journal. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE Constitution proposed by the convention may be considered under two general points of view. The FIRST relates to the sum or quantity of power which it vests in the government, […]

Federalist No. 42

The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered From the New York Packet. Tuesday, January 22, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE SECOND class of powers, lodged in the general government, consists of those which regulate the intercourse with foreign nations, to wit: to make treaties; to send […]

Federalist No. 43

The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered For the Independent Journal. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE FOURTH class comprises the following miscellaneous powers:1. A power “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for a limited time, to authors and […]

Federalist No. 44

Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States From the New York Packet. Friday, January 25, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: A FIFTH class of provisions in favor of the federal authority consists of the following restrictions on the authority of the several States:1. “No State shall enter […]

Federalist No. 45

The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered For the Independent Journal. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: HAVING shown that no one of the powers transferred to the federal government is unnecessary or improper, the next question to be considered is, whether the […]

Federalist No. 46

The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared From the New York Packet. Tuesday, January 29, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: RESUMING the subject of the last paper, I proceed to inquire whether the federal government or the State governments will have the advantage with regard to […]

Federalist No. 47

The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts From the New York Packet. Friday, February 1, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: HAVING reviewed the general form of the proposed government and the general mass of power allotted to it, I […]

Federalist No. 48

These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other From the New York Packet. Friday, February 1, 1788. Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: IT WAS shown in the last paper that the political apothegm there examined does not require that the […]

Federalist No. 49

Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 5, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE author of the “Notes on the State of Virginia,” quoted in the last […]

Federalist No. 50

Periodic Appeals to the People Considered From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 5, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: IT MAY be contended, perhaps, that instead of OCCASIONAL appeals to the people, which are liable to the objections urged against them, PERIODICAL appeals are the proper and […]

Federalist No. 51

The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments From the New York Packet. Friday, February 8, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: TO WHAT expedient, then, shall we finally resort, for maintaining in practice the necessary partition of power among […]

Federalist No. 52

The House of Representatives From the New York Packet. Friday, February 8, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: FROM the more general inquiries pursued in the four last papers, I pass on to a more particular examination of the several parts of the government. I shall begin with […]

Federalist No. 53

The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 12, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: I SHALL here, perhaps, be reminded of a current observation, “that where annual elections end, tyranny begins. ” If it be true, as has often been […]

Federalist No. 54

The Apportionment of Members Among the States From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 12, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE next view which I shall take of the House of Representatives relates to the appointment of its members to the several States which is to be […]

Federalist No. 55

The Total Number of the House of Representatives From the New York Packet. Friday, February 15, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE number of which the House of Representatives is to consist, forms another and a very interesting point of view, under which this branch of the […]

Federalist No. 56

The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 19, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE SECOND charge against the House of Representatives is, that it will be too small to possess a due knowledge of the […]

Federalist No. 57

The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 19, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE THIRD charge against the House of Representatives is, that it will […]

Federalist No. 58

Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered Author: James Madison To the People of the State of New York: THE remaining charge against the House of Representatives, which I am to examine, is grounded on a supposition that the number of members will not be augmented […]

Federalist No. 59

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members From the New York Packet. Friday, February 22, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE natural order of the subject leads us to consider, in this place, that provision of the Constitution which authorizes the national legislature to […]

Federalist No. 60

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 26, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: WE HAVE seen, that an uncontrollable power over the elections to the federal government could not, without hazard, be committed […]

Federalist No. 61

The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 26, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE more candid opposers of the provision respecting elections, contained in the plan of the convention, when pressed in argument, […]

Federalist No. 62

The Senate For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: HAVING examined the constitution of the House of Representatives, and answered such of the objections against it as seemed to merit notice, I enter next on the examination of the Senate. The heads into which this member […]

Federalist No. 63

The Senate Continued For the Independent Journal. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison To the People of the State of New York: A FIFTH desideratum, illustrating the utility of a senate, is the want of a due sense of national character. Without a select and stable member of the government, the esteem of foreign powers will not only […]

Federalist No. 64

The Powers of the Senate From the New York Packet. Friday, March 7, 1788. Author: John Jay To the People of the State of New York: IT IS a just and not a new observation, that enemies to particular persons, and opponents to particular measures, seldom confine their censures to such things only in either as […]

Federalist No. 65

The Powers of the Senate Continued From the New York Packet. Friday, March 7, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE remaining powers which the plan of the convention allots to the Senate, in a distinct capacity, are comprised in their participation with the executive in the appointment to […]

Federalist No. 66

Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered From the New York Packet. Tuesday, March 11, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: A REVIEW of the principal objections that have appeared against the proposed court for the trial of impeachments, will […]

Federalist No. 67

The Executive Department From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 11, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE constitution of the executive department of the proposed government, claims next our attention. There is hardly any part of the system which could have been attended with greater difficulty in the […]

Federalist No. 68

The Mode of Electing the President From the New York Packet Friday, March 14, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE mode of appointment of the Chief Magistrate of the United States is almost the only part of the system, of any consequence, which has escaped without severe censure, […]

Federalist No. 69

The Real Character of the Executive From the New York Packet Friday, March 14, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: I PROCEED now to trace the real characters of the proposed Executive, as they are marked out in the plan of the convention. This will serve to place in […]

Federalist No. 70

The Executive Department Further Considered From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 18, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THERE is an idea, which is not without its advocates, that a vigorous Executive is inconsistent with the genius of republican government. The enlightened well-wishers to this species of government […]

Federalist No. 71

The Duration in Office of the Executive From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 18, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: DURATION in office has been mentioned as the second requisite to the energy of the Executive authority. This has relation to two objects: to the personal firmness of […]

Federalist No. 72

The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered From the New York Packet Friday, March 21, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE administration of government, in its largest sense, comprehends all the operations of the body politic, whether legislative, executive, or judiciary; but in its most […]

Federalist No. 73

The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power  From the New York Packet Friday, March 21, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE third ingredient towards constituting the vigor of the executive authority, is an adequate provision for its support. It is evident that, without […]

Federalist No. 74

The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 25, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE President of the United States is to be “commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, and […]

Federalist No. 75

The Treaty Making Power of the Executive For the Independent Journal Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE President is to have power, “by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur.” Though this provision has been assailed, […]

Federalist No. 76

The Appointing Power of the Executive From the New York Packet. Tuesday, April 1, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE President is “to NOMINATE, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, […]

Federalist No. 77

The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered From the New York Packet. Friday, April 4, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IT HAS been mentioned as one of the advantages to be expected from the co-operation of the Senate, in the business of appointments, that […]

Federalist No. 78

The Judiciary Department From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: WE PROCEED now to an examination of the judiciary department of the proposed government. In unfolding the defects of the existing Confederation, the utility and necessity of a federal judicature have been clearly pointed out. It […]

Federalist No. 79

The Judiciary Department Continued From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: NEXT to permanency in office, nothing can contribute more to the independence of the judges than a fixed provision for their support. The remark made in relation to the President is equally applicable here. […]

Federalist No. 80

The Powers of the Judiciary From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: To JUDGE with accuracy of the proper extent of the federal judicature, it will be necessary to consider, in the first place, what are its proper objects. It seems scarcely to admit of controversy, […]

Federalist No. 81

The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: LET US now return to the partition of the judiciary authority between different courts, and their relations to each other, “The judicial power of the United States is” (by […]

Federalist No. 82

The Judiciary Continued From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE erection of a new government, whatever care or wisdom may distinguish the work, cannot fail to originate questions of intricacy and nicety; and these may, in a particular manner, be expected to flow from the […]

Federalist No. 83

The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: THE objection to the plan of the convention, which has met with most success in this State, and perhaps in several of the other States, is THAT RELATIVE TO THE […]

Federalist No. 84

Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: IN THE course of the foregoing review of the Constitution, I have taken notice of, and endeavored to answer most of the objections which have appeared against it. […]

Federalist No. 85

Concluding Remarks From McLEAN’S Edition, New York. Author: Alexander Hamilton To the People of the State of New York: ACCORDING to the formal division of the subject of these papers, announced in my first number, there would appear still to remain for discussion two points: “the analogy of the proposed government to your own State constitution,” […]

Essays on Founding Documents/Readings

August 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 85 – Some Final Thoughts, From McLean’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

August 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 85 – Janine Turner

August 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 84 – Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered, From McLean’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Dr. Matthew Spalding, Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies at The Heritage Foundation

August 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 84 – Janine Turner

August 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 83 – The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury, From McLEAN’S Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kelly Shackelford, President/CEO of the Liberty Institute

August 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 82 & Federalist No. 83 – Janine Turner

August 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 82 –The Judiciary Continued, From McLEAN’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Robert Lowry Clinton, Professor and Chair of the Department of Political Science at Southern Illinois University Carbondale

August 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 82 & Federalist No. 83 – Janine Turner

August 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 81 – The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority, From McLean’s Edition, New York – Guest Blogger: Jeffrey Reed is a professional orchestra conductor, holds a degree from the Louis B. Brandeis School of Law, and has taught constitutional law at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky

August 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 81 – Janine Turner

August 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 80 – The Powers of the Judiciary, From McLean’s Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

August 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 80 – Janine Turner

August 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 79 – The Judiciary Department Continued, From McLEAN’S Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kevin Theriot, Senior Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

August 16, 2010 – Federalist Paper No. 78 & 79 – Janine Turner

August 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 78 – The Judiciary Department, From McLEAN’S Edition, New York (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Brian Faughnan, Managing Editor of LibertyCentral.org

August 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 78 & Federalist No. 79 – Janine Turner

August 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 77 – The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Steven H. Aden, Senior Legal Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

August 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 77- Cathy Gillespie

August 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 77 – Janine Turner

August 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 76 – The Appointing Power of the Executive, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Gary McCaleb, Senior Counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund

August 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 76 – Cathy Gillespie

August 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 76 – Janine Turner

August 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 75 – The Treaty Making Power of the Executive, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Nathaniel Stewart, attorney and fellow at the Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs

August 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 75 – Janine Turner

August 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 74 – The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive, from the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Allison Hayward, Vice President of Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

August 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 74 – Janine Turner

August 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 73 – The Provision for the Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

August 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 73 – Janine Turner

August 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 73 – Cathy Gillespie

August 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 72 – The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kelly Shackelford, President/CEO of the Liberty Institute

August 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 71 – The Duration in Office of the Executive, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kyle Scott, PhD, Professor in the Political Science Department and Honors College at the University of Houston

August 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 71 and Federalist No. 72 – Cathy Gillespie

August 5, 2010 – Federalist Papers No. 71 & Federalist No. 72 – Janine Turner

August 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 70 – The Executive Department Further Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

August 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 69 & Federalist No. 70 – Cathy Gillespie

August 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 70 – Janine Turner

August 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 69 – The Powers of the President, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

August 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 68 & Federalist No. 69 – Janine Turner

August 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 69 & Federalist No. 70 – Cathy Gillespie

July 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 68 – The Mode of Electing the President, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

July 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 68 – Cathy Gillespie

August 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 68 & Federalist No. 69 – Janine Turner

July 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 67 – The Executive Department, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Troy Kickler, Founding Director of the North Carolina History Project.

July 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 67 – Cathy Gillespie

July 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 67 – Janine Turner

July 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 66 – Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, writer and director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

July 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 66 – Janine Turner

July 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 66 – Cathy Gillespie

July 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 65 – The Powers of the Senate Continued, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Troy Kickler, Ph.D., Founding Director of the North Carolina History Project

July 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 65 – Cathy Gillespie

July 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 65 – Janine Turner

July 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 64 – The Powers of the Senate, From the New York Packet (John Jay) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

July 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 64 – Janine Turner

July 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 64 – Cathy Gillespie

July 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 63 – The Senate Continued, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

July 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 63 – Cathy Gillespie

July 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 63 – Janine Turner

July 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 62 – The Senate, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

July 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 62 – Cathy Gillespie

July 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 62 – Janine Turner

July 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 61 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kyle Scott, Political Science Department and Honors College Professor at the University of Houston

July 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 61 – Cathy Gillespie

July 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 61 – Janine Turner

July 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 60 – The Same Subject Continued – Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn

July 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 60 – Janine Turner

July 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 60 – Cathy Gillespie

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Kyle Scott, Political Science Department and Honors College Professor at the University of Houston

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Cathy Gillespie

July 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 59 – Janine Turner

July 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 58 – Objection that the Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Founding Fathers

July 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 57 – The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation, From the New York Packet – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

July 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 56 – The Same Subject Continued—The Total Number of the House of Representatives, From the New York Packet (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn

July 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 56 – Janine Turner

July 13 – Federalist No. 55 – The Total Number of the House of Representatives, From the New York Packet – Guest Blogger: David J. Bobb, Ph.D., director of the Hillsdale College Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington, D.C.

July 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 55 Part 2 – Janine Turner

July 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 55 – Cathy Gillespie

July 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 55 – Janine Turner

July 12 – Federalist No. 54 – The Apportionment of Members Among the States, From the New York Packet (Madison or Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

July 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 54 – Cathy Gillespie

July 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 54 – Juliette Turner

July 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 53 – The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives, From the New York Packet (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Marc Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and graduate of Boston College Law School

July 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 53 – Cathy Gillespie

July 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 53 – Janine Turner

July 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 52 – The House of Representatives, From the New York Packet (Madison or Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

July 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 52 – Cathy Gillespie

July 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 52 – Janine Turner

July 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 51 – The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, From the New York Packet (Hamilton or Madison) – Guest Blogger: Professor John S. Baker, Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

July 7, 2010 – Federalist Paper No. 51 – Janine Turner

June 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 51 – Cathy Gillespie

July 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 50 – The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives (Madison or Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Founding Fathers

July 6, 2010 – Federalist Paper No. 50 – Janine Turner

July 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 49 & Federalist No. 50 – Cathy Gillespie

July 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 49 – Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Colleen Sheehan, Professor of Political Science at Villanova University and Director of the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the Study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

July 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 48 & Federalist No. 49 – Janine Turner

July 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 49 & Federalist No. 50 – Cathy Gillespie

July 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 48 – These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: John S. Baker, Jr. the Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

July 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 48 – Cathy Gillespie

July 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 48 & Federalist No. 49 – Janine Turner

July 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 47 – The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: John S. Baker, Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

July 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 47 – Cathy Gillespie

July 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 47 – Janine Turner

June 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 46 – The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: David B. Kopel, Research Director at the Independence Institute, and Adjunct Professor of Advanced Constitutional Law at Denver University, Sturm College of Law

June 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 46 – Janine Turner

June 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 46 – Cathy Gillespie

June 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 45 – The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered, For the Independent Journal (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 45 – Janine Turner

June 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 45 – Cathy Gillespie

June 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 44 – Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 44 – Cathy Gillespie

June 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 44 – Janine Turner

June 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 43 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered, for the Independent Journal (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 43 – Janine Turner

June 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 43 – Cathy Gillespie

June 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 42 – The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Legal Commentator and Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

June 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 42 – Janine Turner

June 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 42 – Cathy Gillespie

June 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 41 – General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution, For the Independent Journal (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 41 – Cathy Gillespie

June 23, 2010 – Federalist No. 41 – Janine Turner

June 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 40 – The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained, from the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joseph Postell, Assistant Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies at the Heritage Foundation

June 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 40 – Janine Turner

June 22, 2010 – Federalist No. 40 – Cathy Gillespie

June 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 39 – The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: John S. Baker, Jr., the Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

June 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 39 – Cathy Gillespie

June 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 39 – Janine Turner

June 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 38 – The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 38 – Cathy Gillespie

June 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 38 – Janine Turner

June 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 37 – Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government, From the Daily Advertiser (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 37 – Cathy Gillespie

June 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 37 – Janine Turner

June 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 36 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Attorney Janice R. Brenman

June 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 36 – Janine Turner

June 16, 2010 – Federalist No. 36 – Cathy Gillespie

June 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 35 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joseph Postell, Assistant Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies at The Heritage Foundation

June 15, 2010 – Federalist No. 35 – Janine Turner & Cathy Gillespie

June 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 34 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Brion McClanahan, Ph.D., author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Founding Fathers

June 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 34 – Janine Turner and Cathy Gillespie

June 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 33 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the Daily Advertiser (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 33 – Cathy Gillespie

June 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 33 – Janine Turner

June 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 32 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 32 – Janine Turner

June 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 32 – Cathy Gillespie

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Director of the Center for Law and Regulation at the Institute for Liberty

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – Janine Turner

June 9, 2010 – Federalist No. 31 – Cathy Gillespie

June 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 30 – Concerning the General Power of Taxation, From the New York Packet – Guest Blogger: Attorney Janice R. Brenman

June 8, 2010 – Federalist No. 30 – Janine Turner

June 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 29 – Concerning the Militia, From the Daily Advertiser (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Marc S. Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and Associates LLC and graduate of Boston College Law School

June 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 29 – Janine Turner

June 4th, 2010 – Federalist No. 28 – The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered, for the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Professor Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

June 4 , 2010 – Federalist No. 28 – Janine Turner

June 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 28 – Cathy Gillespie

June 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 27 – The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered, from the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Julia Shaw, research associate and program manager at the Heritage Foundation’s B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies

June 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 27 – Janine Turner

June 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 27 – Cathy Gillespie

June 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 26 – The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Bloggers: Daren Bakst, J.D., LL.M., Director of Legal and Regulatory Studies at the John Locke Foundation and Troy Kickler, Ph.D., Director of the North Carolina History Project

June 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 26 – Cathy Gillespie

June 2, 2010 – Federalist No. 26 – Janine Turner

June 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 25 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 1, 2010 – Federalist No. 24 & 25 – Janine Turner

June 1, 2010 – We The People 9.17 Contest Update and Federalist No. 25 – Cathy Gillespie

May 31, 2010 – Federalist No. 24 – The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Allison R. Hayward, Vice President for Policy at the Center for Competitive Politics

May 31, 2010 – Federalist No. 24 – Cathy Gillespie

June 1, 2010 – Federalist Paper No. 24 & 25 – Janine Turner

May 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 23 – The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Bloggers: Troy Kickler, Ph.D., Director of the North Carolina History Project and Daren Bakst, J.D., L.L.M., Director of Legal and Regulatory Studies at the John Locke Foundation

May 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 23 – Janine Turner

May 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 23 – Cathy Gillespie

May 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 22 – The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Dr. Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

May 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 22 – Cathy Gillespie

May 27, 2010 – Federalist No. 22 – Janine Turner

May 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 21 – Other Defects of the Present Confederation, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

May 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 21 – Cathy Gillespie

May 26, 2010 – Federalist No. 21 – Janine Turner

May 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 20 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, from the New York Packet (Hamilton & Madison) – Guest Blogger: William C. Duncan, director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 20 – Janine Turner

May 25, 2010 – Federalist No. 20 – Cathy Gillespie

May 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 19 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton & Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 19 – Cathy Gillespie

May 24, 2010 – Federalist No. 19 – Janine Turner

May 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 18 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton & Madison) – Guest Blogger: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

May 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 18 – Janine Turner

May 21, 2010 – Federalist No. 18 – Cathy Gillespie

May 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 17 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: William C. Duncan, director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 17 – Janine Turner

May 20, 2010 – Federalist No. 17 – Cathy Gillespie

May 19 – Federalist No. 16 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Marc S. Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and Associates LLC and graduate of Boston College Law School

May 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 16 – Janine Turner

May 19, 2010 – Federalist No. 16 – Cathy Gillespie

May 18 – Federalist No. 15 – The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Professor Allison Hayward, George Mason School of Law and fellow with the Center for Competitive Politics

May 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 15 – Janine Turner

May 18, 2010 – Federalist No. 15 – Cathy Gillespie

May 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 14 – Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: W. B. Allen, Dean and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

May 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 14 – Cathy Gillespie

May 17, 2010 – Federalist No. 14 – Janine Turner

May 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 13 – Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government, for the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Dr. Will Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

May 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 13 – Janine Turner

May 14, 2010 – Federalist No. 13 – Cathy Gillespie

May 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 12 – The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue, from the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Paul S. Teller, Ph.D., Executive Director of the RSC

May 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 12 – Janine Turner

May 13, 2010 – Federalist No. 12 – Cathy Gillespie

May 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 11 – The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy, for the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Dr. Joe Postell, Assistant Director of the Center for American Studies, the Heritage Foundation

May 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 11 – Janine Turner

May 12, 2010 – Federalist No. 11 – Cathy Gillespie

May 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 10 – The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection, From the New York Packet (Madison) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 10 – Cathy Gillespie

May 11, 2010 – Federalist No. 10 – Janine Turner

May 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 9 – The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection, for the Indpendent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 9 – Janine Turner

May 10, 2010 – Federalist No. 9 – Cathy Gillespie

May 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 8 – The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States, From the New York Packet (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: W. B. Allen, Dean and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

May 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 8 – Janine Turner

May 7, 2010 – Federalist No. 8 – Cathy Gillespie

May 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 7 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States, for the Indpendent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: W. B. Allen, Dean and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

May 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 7 – Cathy Gillespie

May 6, 2010 – Federalist No. 7 – Janine Turner

May 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 6 – Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States, for the Indpendent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: W. B. Allen, Dean and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

May 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 6 – Janine Turner

May 5, 2010 – Federalist No. 6 – Cathy Gillespie

May 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 5 Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (continued) Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Legal Commentator and Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

May 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 5 – Cathy Gillespie

May 4, 2010 – Federalist No. 5 – Janine Turner

May 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 4 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence, for the Independent Journal (Jay) – Guest Blogger: W.B. Allen, emeritus dean and professor of Political Philosophy at Michigan State University

May 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 4 – Janine Turner

May 3, 2010 – Federalist No. 4 – Cathy Gillespie

April 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 3 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (Jay) – Guest Blogger: W. B. Allen, Professor of Political Philosophy at Michigan State University

April 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 3 – Janine Turner

April 30, 2010 – Federalist No. 3 – Cathy Gillespie

April 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 2 – Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence, for the Independent Journal (Jay) – Guest Blogger: Marc S. Lampkin, partner at Quinn Gillespie and Associates LLC and graduate of Boston College Law School

April 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 2 – Janine Turner

April 29, 2010 – Federalist No. 2 – Cathy Gillespie

April 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 1, General Introduction, For the Independent Journal (Hamilton) – Guest Blogger: Horace Cooper, Legal Commentator and Director of the Institute for Liberty’s Center for Law and Regulation

April 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 1 – Janine Turner

April 28, 2010 – Federalist No. 1 – Cathy Gillespie

April 23, 2010 – Article III of the U.S. Constitution – Cathy Gillespie

February 23, 2011 – Article I, Section 02, Clause 1-2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, Senior Fellow with the Heartland Institute

March 1, 2011 – Article I, Section 03, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joe Postell, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

March 2, 2011 – Article I, Section 03, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

March 7, 2011 – Article I, Section 04, Clause 1-2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 16, 2011 – Article I, Section 07, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: George Schrader, Student of Political Science at Hillsdale College

March 18, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 01 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: John S. Baker, Jr., the Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law at Louisiana State University

March 21, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 02 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 22, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 03 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law School

March 23, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 04 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

March 24, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 05-06 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Troy Kickler, Founding Director of North Carolina History Project and Editor of northcarolinahistory.org

March 28, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 09 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Ph.D., Duncan Black Professor of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute

March 29, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 10-13 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Horace Cooper, legal commentator and a senior fellow with The Heartland Institute

March 31, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 17 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

April 1, 2011 – Article I, Section 08, Clause 18 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 5, 2011 – Article I, Section 09, Clause 2-3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 7, 2011 – Article I, Section 09, Clause 7 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dan Morenoff, Attorney

April 14, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Lawrence J. Spiwak, President of the Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies

April 15, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Tara Ross, Author, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College

April 18, 2011 – Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 26, 2011 – Article II, Section 2, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Baskin, ConSource Researcher

April 27, 2011 – Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

May 2, 2011 – Article II, Section 4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies, The Heritage Foundation

May 4, 2011 – Article III, Section 2, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 5, 2011 – Article III, Section 2, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Charles E. Rice, Professor Emeritus of Law at the University of Notre Dame

May 13, 2011 – Article IV, Section 4 of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Professor William Morrisey, William and Patricia LaMothe Chair in the United States Constitution at Hillsdale College

May 16, 2011 – Article V of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 17, 2011 – Article VI of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Nathaniel Stewart, Attorney

May 18, 2011 – Article VII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Dan Morenoff, Attorney

June 1, 2011 – Amendment X of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Andrew Langer, President of the Institute for Liberty

June 3, 2011 – Amendment XII of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

June 22, 2011 – Amendment XXV of the United States Constitution – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

February 20, 2012 – Essay #1 – The Amendment Process – Guest Essayist: Dr. Larry P. Arnn, president of Hillsdale College, and author of The Founders’ Key: The Divine and Natural Connection Between the Declaration and the Constitution and What We Risk by Losing It

February 21, 2012 – Essay #2 – The Bill of Rights, Purpose and Benefits – Guest Essayist: Richard Brookhiser, Author, James Madison

March 5, 2012 – Essay #11 – Amendment II: Well Regulated Militia Being Necessary to the Security of a Free State – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

March 8, 2012 – Essay #14 – Amendment III: Situation in Time of War – Guest Essayist: Andrew Dykstal, a Junior at Hillsdale College

April 10, 2012 – Essay #37 – Amendment IX: Rights Which Are Enumerated – Guest Essayist: W.B. Allen, Dean Emeritus, James Madison College; Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University

April 11, 2012 – Essay #38 – Amendment IX: Guest Essayist: Brion McClanahan Ph.D., author of The Founding Fathers Guide to the Constitution

April 12, 2012 – Essay #39 – Amendment X: Our Constitution a Grant of Limited Powers to the National Government – Guest Essayist: Dr. John S. Baker, Jr., Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Catholic University School of Law; Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University Law Center

April 17, 2012 – Essay #42 – Amendment XI: Right of States to Sovereign Immunity – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

April 25, 2012 – Essay #48 – Amendment XIV, Section 1 – Citizenship Defined – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Monday, April 30, 2012 – Essay #51 – Amendment XIV, Section 1: Equal Protection Under the Law – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

May 11, 2012 – Essay #60 – Amendment XVI – Guest Essayist: James D. Best, author of Tempest at Dawn, a novel about the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and Principled Action, Lessons from the Origins of the American Republic

May 17, 2012 – Essay #64 – Amendment XVIII, Section 2 – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

May 31, 2012 – Essay #74 –Amendment XXIII – Guest Essayist: Julia Shaw, Research Associate and Program Manager in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics at the Heritage Foundation

June 14, 2012 – Essay #84 – Proposed Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Essayist: David Eastman, 2011 Claremont Institute Abraham Lincoln Fellow

Wednesday, February 20, 2013 – Essay #3 – The Letter to Henry Lee by Thomas Jefferson – Guest Essayist: William C. Duncan, Director of the Marriage Law Foundation

Wednesday, February 27, 2013 – Essay #8 – Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Thursday, February 28, 2013 – Essay #9 – The US Constitution – Guest Essayist: Tony Williams, Program Director, Washington-Jefferson-Madison Institute

Friday, March 1, 2013 – Essay #10 – Marbury vs. Madison by John Marshall – Guest Essayist: Steven H. Aden, Senior Counsel and Vice President of the Center for Life at Alliance Defending Freedom

Wednesday, April 3, 2013 – Essay #33 – Vices of the Political System of the United States by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Kevin R. C. Gutzman, J.D., Ph.D., Professor and Director of Graduate Studies Department of History, Western Connecticut State University and Author, James Madison and the Making of America

Wednesday, April 24, 2013 – Essay #48 – Letter To Edward Everett by James Madison – Guest Essayist: Charles K. Rowley, Duncan Black Professor Emeritus of Economics at George Mason University and General Director of The Locke Institute in Fairfax, Virginia

Tuesday, May 14, 2013 – Essay #62 – Reply in the Senate to William Seward by Jefferson Davis – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good, Villanova University

Monday, June 3, 2013 – Essay #76 – The President of the United States by Woodrow Wilson – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath, Professor of Law at Southwestern Law School

Tuesday, June 4, 2013 – Essay #77 – The Presidency: Making an Old Party Progressive by Theodore Roosevelt – Guest Essayist: James Legee, Graduate, Master of Arts in Political Science at Villanova University, Graduate Fellow at the Matthew J. Ryan Center for the study of Free Institutions and the Public Good

Why Separate Government Powers? – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

Federalism On Life Support: The Affordable Care Act And How It Affects You – Guest Essayist: Troy Kickler

The Imperial Obama Presidency and the Demise of Checks and Balances – Guest Essayist: U.S. Senator Ted Cruz

Power To The Regulators! – Guest Essayist: James D. Best

How Can Words On Parchment Constrain Executive Overreach? Guest Essayist: James D. Best

Presidential Power And The “Nuclear Deal” With Iran – Guest Essayist: Joerg Knipprath

The Constitutional Tools Of Foreign Relations – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

Executive Overreach And Its Effect On The Constitution’s Structural Safeguards Of Liberty – Guest Essayist: Professor Joerg Knipprath

How The Federalists Viewed Human Nature And Its Impact on The Resulting Government System In The United States of America (Part 1) – Guest Essayist: Amy Rofail

How The Federalists Viewed Human Nature And Its Impact on The Resulting Government System In The United States of America (Part 2) – Guest Essayist: Amy Rofail

Stopping The Usurpation Of Advice And Consent – Guest Essayist: Scot Faulkner

Common Core: All Too Common Overreach – Guest Essayist: Cynthia Dunbar

Untried Weapons – Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 2) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman

Untried Weapons – Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 4) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman

It’s Time To Let Native Americans Practice Their Faith – Guest Essayist: Kristina Arriaga

Untried Weapons — Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 6) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman

Untried Weapons — Repairing The Tattered Remains Of A Constitution That Has Not Been Tried And Found Wanting, But That Has Been Found Difficult; And Left Untried (Part 7) – Guest Essayist: David Eastman